Soldering iron designed for 12 volts, can operate both from AC current and from DC.
A DC-powered soldering iron can even be connected to a car’s onboard network, provided that its power does not exceed the rated capacity of the car’s electrical wiring.
On sale there are quite a few designs of soldering irons that use low voltage. They can be distinguished by the obligatory inscription on the body, on the package.
This voltage should also be listed in the tool specifications. In the presence of unnecessary soldering iron for 220 volts, you can make a 12 volt by yourself.
Homemade,diy powerful,fast,smart 12v soldering iron
How to make a heat-air soldering iron with your own hands
Radio masters and hobbyists often encounter various breakdowns of radio equipment. An ordinary soldering iron with a copper tip can be used for repairs, but with advances in technology, some devices have very small parts. With usual soldering iron with such devices to work inconveniently or absolutely impossible, for example, SMD elements it is necessary to solder by heating of the general soldering zone. There are different soldering stations and hair dryers for such processes.
The reason that the modern market is able to offer a wide range of soldering equipment is the fact that an ordinary household soldering iron has become a tool that can be bought on every corner. But it does not solder all modern devices.
With the soldering station, which can be made with their own hands, it is possible to repair any piece of electrical equipment, including such complex and high-precision as the motherboard of the computer.
Before we proceed to the design and begin to describe the homemade digital soldering mechanism, let’s consider what kind of station can be and what types of soldering exist.
Stations can be conventionally classified as follows:
- contact type;
- The contact type without the use of lead;
- thermal-air type;
- combined heat and air type;
- disassembly type;
- infrared stations.
The simplest kind. contact. Its structure is not much different from the usual soldering iron, but the contact equipment is devoid of many of the design flaws that soldering irons have.
The main problem with the soldering iron is the excessive heating of radio components, in particular transistors, diodes, thyristors. Because of the high temperature, the semiconductor elements begin to change their voltampere characteristic and disrupt the flow of electric current in the circuit.
That is why it becomes impossible to regulate the temperature of heating elements, in other words the traditional soldering iron sooner or later the temperature either rises indefinitely or stops to rise at all.
So after reaching 400 C, reflow soldering can only be safe because of the short term charge-solder contact.
When starting to build a contact soldering station or when choosing one of the models that are already on the market, one must realize that it must contain a power supply that includes a galvanic separation in its construction. This is exactly the mechanism of the heater power ensures adequate regulation of the heating voltage and temperature. Most often the most rational heating temperature is 250-350 C.
Contactless (hot air) soldering stations are units that are well suited for repair of cell phones, large and small appliances. The power of these units is extremely high, they do an excellent job with both lead and lead-free solder.
But it must be remembered that such devices can not be used for BGA-type chips. Hot-air, no-contact soldering is a symbiosis of a construction dryer and a soldering iron, soldering with such a device is very comfortable and fast.
The basics of soldering with a hair dryer
Before you start designing a homemade soldering iron, you should familiarize yourself with the basic methods of using this tool.
Thermo blowtorch for soldering, as a rule, may be needed in such cases:
- Soldering of very small SMD parts.Most small radio components cannot be soldered with a soldering iron. For installation of such components it is necessary to tin the landing place, lubricate it with flux and place the microcircuit. After that you can safely start heating mounting contacts with a heat gun until the solder under the component melts and it sits on the PCB.
- Lack of free space for using a soldering iron.At very dense layout of elements on PCB, using soldering iron is very difficult. In this case, a heat gun is the best option for the radio amateur.
- Repair work on cell phones or tablets.Most modern gadgets are almost impossible to disassemble without using a heat gun. For example, replacing the screen on any phone requires preheating the old matrix with a heat gun. Serious heating neutralizes the glue and allows you to separate the screen from the body of the device.
- Removal of BGA chips from their seating surfaces.Rebolting and heating of modern video chips is performed using a soldering heat gun.
Temperature and airflow density are usually controlled by the buttons on the thermofoamer.
- applying solder or solder paste to the place of the supposed installation;
- Installing the microcircuit on the landing place;
- heating of the mounting contacts with a soldering heat gun.
To protect nearby components from the heat, special shields made of aluminum foil should be put on them.
After the work is done check the quality of soldering of all the contacts with a needle.
Dismounting with a hair dryer is even easier. To remove the faulty chip you need to:
While heating the surface with a heat gun, make circular movements. This technique allows you to avoid local overheating of the board and violation of its geometry.
A homemade hair dryer will have the design and principle of operation described above. For the invention, of course, will require a certain amount of materials, which will not be difficult to find in the home stash.
Homemade hair dryer has a slightly lower temperature of 600 0C. This temperature is enough to heat the base and unsolder the radio components. The device can be used for microscopic work with a power of 75 W. When unsoldering larger parts, you need more power (about 110 watts). The current value is 4 A, with a voltage index of 24-35 V.
You can build and their own hands
For more information! All parameters must be fine-tuned to avoid dangerous situations during operation. The material for the assembly is carefully selected. No hurry, each further step should be considered beforehand.
How to make a soldering iron from a cigarette lighter
So for making a soldering iron you need a 12 volt car cigarette lighter and a power adapter with the same voltage. It is very important to pick up the right amperage of the power supply, because otherwise homemade hair dryer from the cigarette lighter will not heat SMD parts enough, which will cause many problems in the soldering.
In addition to the cigarette lighter itself, you will also need a case where it can be inserted. You can use a plastic screwdriver body for this purpose if it is hollow inside. Thus, you can easily place and fix the car cigarette lighter in the body of the screwdriver.
What’s next? Next, you need to connect to the cigarette lighter two wires that serve to connect the power supply. Wires are screwed rigid and necessarily through an insulator, so that there would not be a short circuit inside the cigarette lighter.
Well, then it remains to connect a homemade soldering iron from a car cigarette lighter to the power supply. As mentioned above, the power supply must be 12 volts. As for the current, it will be enough for the cigarette lighter to work 5 Amps.
The operating temperature of such a homemade soldering iron reaches 400 degrees. This is quite enough and even more than necessary to solder out modern parts on circuit boards. If anything, it is possible to adjust the temperature of the soldering iron by reducing the voltage on the power supply, if such a feature is provided in it.
Features of soldering heaters
A soldering hair dryer is used when working with low-melting alloys and metals. In addition, it is often used to remove paint coatings from the surface of old parts and when heating them. The temperature of the air leaving the nozzle of the hair dryer reaches 800 ° C. It is regulated by a special relay, but in addition, the temperature depends on the voltage used, the fan and the distance to the heated object.
The nozzle is made of heat-resistant materials and has a certain design, convenient for use in one hand, if it is not a stationary soldering dryer.
Homemade hair dryer for soldering small parts
In connection with the improvement of assembly technology of different kinds of products made of small metal parts (electronic chips), their manual soldering is causing more and more difficulties.
Homemade soldering hair dryer will allow the operator to cope with the difficulties encountered in these situations without much complication and eliminate the risks that arise.
Thus, with the soldering station assembled by his own hands anyone can engage in assembly and disassembly of parts without the threat of damage to fragile electronic elements in the vicinity of the soldering point. One possible solution to this problem allows you to make a hair dryer from the soldering iron, available in a household kit of any handyman.
Electric circuit diagram of hair dryer
The hair dryer works from 220 V, 50 Hz. Any hair dryer has two main parts heating element and an electric motor.
As a rule, a nichrome coil is used as a heating element, it provides warm air. The electric motors used in dryers are mostly DC motors with power up to 50 watts, but there are some exceptions.
Passing through the coil, the current loses its initial force, because the coil has a certain resistance, and it is this current is rectified by a diode bridge and fed to the electric motor.
Electric motors in hair dryers are designed for 12, 24 and 36 volts, only in very rare models are used electric motors with 220 volts, in which case the voltage from the network is fed directly to the electric motor. To the rotor of the motor a screw (propeller) is strengthened which provides a heat exhaust from the coil, namely thanks to this at the output we get enough strong directional flow of warm air. The power of the hair dryer depends on the thickness of the spiral used and the power of the electric motor installed.
Brought a hair dryer was disassembled, it turned out that the problem was a broken track on the board with switches. After filling it with solder, the device worked fine.
But more often the main causes of failure are a broken coil, a non-functional motor, heat-melted contacts of switches, a broken power cord or plug.
The elements in the diagram: 1 nozzle-diffuser, 2 body, 3 air duct, 4 handle, 5 cord twist safety switch, 6 button “cold air” mode, 7 airflow temperature switch, 8 airflow rate switch, 9 button “turbo” mode maximum airflow, 10 loop to hang the hair dryer.
The circuit diagram of a simple hair dryer
The electric motor is supplied with DC voltage, obtained through a diode bridge, consisting of four diodes (or simply from one diode).
Let’s distinguish two elements in the circuit which are the consumers (loads), they are coil and diode bridge (we don’t consider the motor, because the.к. is the load of the bridge). The elements in the circuit are arranged in series (one after the other), so the voltage drop on each of them will depend on its own resistance and their sum will be equal to the mains voltage at the third position of the switch.
Most entry level hair dryers have the simplest electric circuit, in such dryers there is only one switch that turns on the fan and the heating element. The heaters can be made in different modifications, but in all dryers they are made of nichrome twisted into a spring.
However, almost all simple modern hair dryers have 2-3 steps of power and airflow adjustment.
advanced hair dryers have smooth regulators of blowing speed and temperature of blowing air.
Rules of operation of hair dryers
The recommended maximum operating time is 5 minutes. When you are finished, the temperature regulator should be turned down to minimum, left on a cold blast for half a minute, and only then turn off the hair dryer. Try not to handle it with wet hands, otherwise moisture can get on the internal circuit components, which can lead to short circuits. Author: AKA Kasyan.
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