Automatic firewood supply
Boiler “Lesnik” and other similar devices. A unique in its kind device equipped with an automatic feed system that remains effective regardless of the form of such fuel. It is worth noting that the supply of wood is not only automatic, but adjustable and metered, which in itself is quite convenient. The offered system of fuel giving is rather original and new, nothing of the kind has been offered in the world yet until the moment of “Lesnik” development.
It is important to note that the possible submission of not only briquettes, what surprised anyone has long been impossible, but also ordinary wood in Domodedovo. Intelligent system of automatic ignition activates the boiler exactly at the moment when it is most needed by the user, such a system is controlled by a relay called PR 114. DP. Programmable relay, which each user can easily reconfigure according to the specifics of the current individual tasks. The effectiveness of this development is largely due to the fact that the design of this boiler uses the original technical developments of domestic designers. Such boiler is called “Lesnik” or “Gruzdev Boiler.
Another interesting feature of the considered boiler is that for its effective work it is not necessary to bring the fuel to a certain shape. That is, you can use wood of different sizes and shapes and it will not affect the efficiency of the heater in any way. This device belongs to the class of boilers for long combustion, which in practice means the following: check the boiler every hour or every day, it is autonomous enough to work independently, providing your home with warmth and comfort.
The automatic elements used are not complicated, on the contrary. they are characterized by the utmost simplicity and high repairability. In the case of malfunction in the design of the heater, the user can fix it on their own, “on their knees”, which has long been a usual feature for domestic appliances. Versatility, long burning on a single load and increased reliability. Here are the main advantages of this unit, which made it the most popular.
Stove long combustion with their own hands
The never-ending rise in price of traditional fuel forces consumers to look for new and less expensive ways to get heat. Excellent and optimal ratio of performance and saving consumption of fuel resources are boilers long combustion on wood or coal. It has a lot of advantages, the most attractive of which are high heat output with great fuel economy, fuel lining 1-2 times a day. But, unfortunately, the cost of such a unit is from 1 000 y.е., which not everyone can afford. The way out is to make such a boiler on wood with your own hands.
We should say at once. the task is not easy. You will need skills in working with gas-welding equipment and accurate calculation. Any assembly error can have negative consequences: smoke, fire. Therefore, you should be careful and comply with the following conditions:
- correctly determine the design (use the drawing);
- Competently calculate the power of the unit;
- Use reliable materials;
- Qualitatively perform welding;
- To properly install the unit.
The most famous homemade boiler long combustion is a stove Bubafonya, which can maintain a comfortable temperature in the premises for 12 hours. On how to build a Bubafonya we told in another article “Bubafonya stove: how to make your own hands and videos of ready-made stoves”.
Another variant of long combustion boiler on wood, working on the principle of convection stove, is Slobozhanka. Such self-made wood-fired boiler is economical enough and suitable for small rooms. With the volume of the furnace 200 liters, it can provide the heat for firing with wood or sawdust compacted from 8 to 12 hours. and it is a very decent result. As homemade “Slobozhanka” looks, look at the photo.
Of course, you will not put such a structure in the apartment, but for heating the garage, greenhouse, a small cottage or any other technical room, such a stove is like a godsend: it burns for a long time, is not capricious, easy to make.
The principle of operation is not complicated: there are two inner and outer shells with an air layer between them. Cold air comes in from below, is heated by the hot walls of the inner casing and rises to the top, exiting through a special hole in the outer casing. This hot air is used to heat the room.
What you need to make
- thick-walled pipes;
- metal sheets;
- Fittings and metal corners;
- 2 gas cylinders or pieces of thick-walled pipe with a diameter of 250 mm, or 2 domestic barrels;
- welding machine;
- angle grinder;
- the tools (hammer, chisel).
- The first thing to begin with is to build an air-supplying device. To do this, we take a thick-walled tube of length equal to the height of the furnace. From below, we weld a bolt to it. We cut a circle of metal sheet of the same diameter as or slightly larger than the pipe, drill a hole in it for the bolt, and connect it to the air pipe, screwing the nut. Ideally, it should look like this photo. This is what an air-supplying device looks like
It turned out that the air pipe is closed at the bottom of a freely moving circle of metal. It is with this device, increasing or decreasing the lumen, we can control the intensity of combustion, and thus the temperature in the room.
- Next, take an angle grinder and disc for metal, with its help make vertical cuts in the pipe (the one to which the plug was welded) about 1 cm wide. Through them, air will enter the furnace chamber.
- Cut a flat steel pancake with a diameter slightly smaller than the firebox. Inside the cap we make a hole under the air pipe, put it with the ash-pipe down and weld it at a distance of 20-30 cm from its end. Make longitudinal cuts in the pipe of the air feeder, through which the air will flow into the furnace
- Beginning to work with the boiler body. We need to make a cylinder with an airtight bottom. In the case of an empty gas cylinder cut off the top, and if you make a cylinder from a thick-walled sheet metal. weld the bottom. You can either weld a barrel or use any existing barrel, but with a thick wall
- We make the chimney. For this purpose, in the upper side part of the resulting cylinder with an airtight bottom, we make an opening for the exit of gases and weld a pipe with a diameter of not less than 10 cm. Weld the chimney for the smoke exhaust in the upper part of the casing
- Next we mount the air tube to the boiler, cut in the middle of the furnace bottom the hole equal to the diameter of air tube and push it to the bottom of the boiler, so that the air inlet hangs down, outside the boiler. The air pipe must end a few centimeters below where the flue is welded. The air pipe ends below the place where the chimney is welded
- Now make a heat dissipating disk. We take a metal sheet of thickness of 10 mm and cut the pancake size is slightly smaller than the diameter of the body, and for ease of use with a welded handle is attached to it from the armature or steel wire. Heat spreading disc cover
- Make the convection cover and attach it to the stove. We do it this way: we weld from sheet steel a cylinder with a diameter a few centimeters larger than the existing firebox. Then connect the heater and the convection cover in any of the following ways. One of the ways of fastening can be seen in the photo above.
- As the final step we make the lid for the furnace body. We can use the remaining cut off element from a gas cylinder, cover from the barrel will do. We weld a handle to it for convenience. and the wood burning boiler is ready! One of the options for the cover. a barrel with a larger diameter
Important! For good air circulation in the casing, this makeshift wood-burning boiler must be elevated above the floor by at least 25 cm, so you need to weld the stops-foot from any improvised steel elements (angle bars, channel bars).
The legs are necessary for the normal air supply
You can see the construction of the heater quite well in this video.
How do long combustion boilers work on wood “Slobozhanka” can be seen on these
Automatic Firewood Processing Machines, homemade
How to stoke
The main difference from the usual solid fuel boiler is that the air in the long combustion boiler must be limited. The intensity of the process can be controlled by opening the ash-pit or the top cover.
The amount of fuel depends on the time the boiler will work, so load it as tightly as possible. Stack the wood vertically close to each other. Burning from top to bottom.
- Remove the lid and the heat spreading disc from the boiler.
- Open the air damper on the air supply pipe as much as possible.
- Stack the firebox tightly up to the beginning of the chimney with a few small wooden chips on top. Stack the wood tightly, but up to the level of the beginning of the chimney
- Sprinkle some kindling fluid on the upper logs and light the stove. Splinters, paper or cloth soaked in combustible substance are put on top of the firewood
- Put the heat spreading disc and the lid back in place.
- After the fuel has caught fire, close the damper.
The flow of smoke and gases from the chimney indicates the beginning of stable combustion.
Boilers of long combustion on firewood with their own hands, loading 24 hours
Boiler output must be chosen according to the structural characteristics of the house (area, total heat loss) and the climatic zone of the residence. As a rule, the efficiency of a homemade wood-fired long-burning boiler does not exceed 80% (t.е. One-fifth of the heat from the combustion of fuel is lost in the boiler).
Lack of thermal power encourages the generator to burn intensely. Constant peak loads lead to overconsumption of firewood, twice the heat loss and premature deterioration of the boiler.
Calculation of dimensions of the firebox for a wood burning boiler
Type of wood, shape and length of the wood determine the size and size of the furnace chamber. Specific and bulk density of the load, the heat that the wood releases during combustion. reference values. Calculation of loading volume will help to calculate the fuel consumption for the season, organize fuel storage places.
Spruce 1,9 Table 3. Combustion heat of different types of wood:
|Type of wood (humidity not more than 20%)||Calorific value, kWh/kg||Specific density of firewood, kg/m?||Volume density, kg/dm?||Temperature of combustion, ° C|
Let us consider an example of calculating the volume of stoking chamber of the wood boiler. Initial data:
- boiler output 10 kW;
- The volume of one load shall provide the unit operation within a day;
- fuel. birch wood, length of billets 0.60?0,65 м;
- moisture content 20%.
When burning 1 kg of birch wood emits 4.2 kW of thermal energy. The specified power (10 kW) is achieved by burning 2.4 kg of wood per hour (10/4.2 = 2.381).
Cubic meter of birch firewood weighs 650 kg. The hourly fuel consumption will be ? 0,004 м?/ч (2,4/650 = 0,0037).
Weight of the grate with a nozzle ? 60 kg (2,381 x 24 = 57,144).
Birch firewood does not lie flat, so the volume of the charge will increase by a factor of 1.9 to 0.008 m?/h (0,004×1,9 = 0,0076).
The condition is to load once every 24 hours, respectively the volume of fuel 0,2 m? (0,008х24 = 0,192).
The choice of firewood for the solid fuel boiler must be carefully considered
If you take into account the length of the logs 0.6?0,65 m, then the optimum depth of the firebox is 0,7 m.
Let’s assume the height of fuel filling of 0,6 m. Furnace width 0.5 m (0, 2/0.7/0.6 = 0.476).
Working size of the furnace of a wood boiler for home heating (area of 80 m?, birch firewood). 0,7×0,6×0,5 m. The overall dimensions of the finished boiler are doubled, taking into account the thickness of the shell, the size of the heat exchanger, air and afterburning chamber, ash pan, flue gas channels.
Controlled and balanced combustion will reduce the rate of natural flame propagation. Limited supply of primary and secondary air into the furnace will ensure a lack of oxygen and prolong the operating time of the makeshift boiler by 1.8 times. It allows to reduce the estimated consumption of firewood and, consequently, the size of the unit.
A solid fuel wood boiler is a good alternative to the gas heating
Makeshift wood-fired long-burning boiler with a vertical furnace (Bubafonya)
For the boilers of long combustion with their own hands it is assembled from sheet steel (thickness of 4mm)?6 mm), thick-walled pipes (DN 300 mm) and appropriately sized cylindrical containers. The simplest design (“Slobozhanka” or “Bubafonka”) is assembled from a gas cylinder or barrel. The principle of the device copies the Baltic boiler “Stropuva.
A vertical firebox is used for burning wood from the top downwards. The process is accompanied by uniform compaction of the load, emission and afterburning of wood gases, and removal of combustion products to the chimney.
Primary air is supplied to the combustion mirror through a vertical pipe. Static or telescopic structure is mounted in the upper wall of the boiler. The axis of the piston passes through the center of the cylindrical furnace. The clearance between the collar and the primary air supply pipe is designed with a welded collar that ensures free movement of the piston rod and minimal air inflow into the air chamber for afterburning of wood gases.
Drawing of a metal furnace with a combustion chamber
Burning of flue gases increases the efficiency of the boiler. A cover flap on top of the chimney regulates air intake. A disc with blades is welded at the bottom to dissipate the air flow in the combustion zone. material for the distributor choose taking into account thermal capacity. Diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the size of the combustion chamber.
Structural proportions of the boiler “Bubafonja”:
- optimal diameter of the body 300?800 mm;
- boiler height. in the range of 3?5 diameters;
- wall thickness 4?6 mm;
- the disc diameter is smaller than the cross-sectional area of the combustion chamber by 10%;
- disc thickness is inversely proportional to the diameter (a heavy pancake will push through the combustion zone and extinguish the flame, a light one will lead to a reverse combustion effect);
- curved blades form a directed turbulent air flow for pyrolysis gas combustion;
Makeshift Long-Burning Boiler “Bubafonya” with Vertical Furnace
- diameter of air supply pipe is taken as 0.55 of S (area of cross-sectional area of outlet spigot of the chimney);
- the clearance between the chimney and the collar does not exceed 2.5 mm;
- The height of the air intake pipe (in the lower position) is raised above the collar by 150 mm.
The cross-sectional area of the chimney pipe at the outlet of the combustion boiler is determined by the empirical formulas:
S. area of outlet spigot cross-section (cm? or m?);
1.75 is the coefficient obtained empirically (m?h/kW).
qw. specific heat emission of firewood with a certain humidity (kW/kg).
Loading mass for self-made boilers of long combustion on firewood is determined by the working volume of the furnace (Vk) and the specific weight of firewood (md):
Table 4. Balanced size of elements in the primary air distribution system for the Bubafonja boiler:
|Boiler furnace diameter, mm||Disc thickness, mm||Height of air distributor guide fins, mm|
Working principle and drawings of the pyrolysis boilers with their own hands
Makeshift pyrolysis units are installed for heating large area houses. The design of the furnace, nozzle and flue ducts complicates the assembly of homemade gas generators. Forced circulation of coolant and air supply in combustion zone means dependence of boiler operation on external factors. To reduce the risk of emergency breakdown of the boiler it is possible to use the slide gate for thermal energy discharge and the jacket-type heat exchanger.
Scheme of a homemade gas generator with forced air supply in the combustion zone: 1. boiler body; 2. stoking door; 3. ash pan door; 4. fan air supply into the combustion zone; 5. loading chamber and primary combustion zone; 6. process opening for cleaning the chimney channels; 7. combustion chamber of wood gases; 8. heat exchanger jacket; 9. channel of flue gas outlet; 10. chimney outlet neck; 11. chimney adjusting slide (11a. handle of slide); 12. outlet nozzle into the distribution pipeline; 13. return nozzle, through which the coolant comes from the heating system; 14. control knot sleeve (thermomanometer); 15. manhole for cleaning the flue channels
The body of the boiler is welded from thick-walled (4?5 mm) sheet steel. Wood loading. frontal. Thermal radiation is transmitted to the vault of the boiler, the side walls of the chamber and heats the air entering the combustion zone. Tightness and tightness of the furnace chamber provides a shutter with a deflector and a swivel bolt on the boot and ash hatches. Air is supplied to the furnace chamber by forced ventilation.
The heat exchanger jacket completely covers the furnace and partially the pyrolysis gas afterburning chamber. The gap (3?5 cm) filled with water. Back wall heat transfer is increased: one side of the heat exchanger borders the furnace, the other wall of the jacket is in contact with the chimney duct. A heat exchanger built into the flue gas path lowers the temperature of the flue gas up to 100oC. Internal volume of the boiler circuit take 5?25% of the total capacity of the heating system.
A typical strapping diagram of the pyrolysis boiler
The supply pipe of the heating medium to the consumer’s system is located from the top. Return pipe connection. from below. Cooling of the return coolant below 65 ° C, acidic condensate precipitates on the walls of the heat exchanger, which destroys the steel. With a small boiler capacity the temperature between the flow and return lines can be equalized by installing a bypass valve. The boiler circuit of a large house is supplemented with an elevator unit and a circulation pump.
Fly grate in self-made boilers for continuous combustion serves as a support for the fuel load. The heated firewood lies on the grate, overlaid with fireclay. Duzes in the grate body serve as a nozzle, through which combustible gas enters the combustion zone.
Ashes and ashes are poured into ash-pan. Low-power boilers, with an even distribution of heat load on the mirror, the standard cast iron grates are suitable.
The products of combustion fall into the channels and through the neck of the chimney go out of the boiler (the formula for the cross-sectional area of the chimney neck is given in the example above). The chimney control damper can be opened as needed.
The design allows refueling without completely extinguishing the boiler or forced resetting of heat energy in case of power failure. Heated wood gas escapes from the combustion chamber, bypassing the afterburner and flue ducts.
The cross-section and height of the chimney provides the work of energy-independent self-made boiler on a natural draught. Normal draught of the pyrolysis boiler is ensured by the chimney height of 6 m.
The obtained data is reflected on the scale drawing of the long-burning boiler with their own hands, according to which the volume and approximate amount for the purchase of consumables are determined.
Diagrams of pyrolytic boilers of various types
The choice of the boiler on wood briquettes
Choosing a long combustion boiler on pressed wood briquettes, can be difficult, because of the large range of products offered. The domestic market offers models made in Russia, Europe and neighboring countries.
To facilitate the selection of equipment, all offered boilers for burning briquettes can be divided into several categories, according to the territorial feature. the country of manufacturer:
- Germany. Bosch Solid.
- Czech Republic. ATMOS, Dakon (company owned by Bosch), Wattek.
- Russia. Nibe VIKING, Zharstal Dobrynya, Dragon.
- Turkey. Radijator.
- Poland. Heiztechnik.
- Italy. Ferroli.
The proposed list lists boilers for burning briquettes, using the principle of pyrolysis combustion. All models enjoy invariable popularity, which is clearly proved by sales statistics.
What is better to heat the boiler. wood or briquettes
Solid fuel boilers on wood briquettes, despite their good heating performance, remain rare in most regions of Russia. But gradually the trend is changing.
To determine what to heat a solid fuel boiler, wood or briquettes, it is worth considering what characteristics distinguish the pressed fuel:
- Relative humidity. the figure does not exceed 8-10%. The firewood, even after two years of drying, has a moisture content of at least 20%.
- Calorific value. it varies at the level of 4,5-5 kW/kg. The same characteristics distinguish pellets and coal.
- Efficiency. the efficiency of solid fuel pyrolytic boiler on wooden briquettes exceeds by 5.3% the identical indicators when using coal.
By all indications, the use of briquettes is more profitable. It is worth taking into account several other parameters:
- Technological results. combustion is characterized by stability and uniformity. With normal draught characteristics, the flame is bright yellow. In the combustion process, no soot is emitted. The chimney heats up quickly, there are no temperature fluctuations. As a result of these features, there is a reduction in condensation.
- Ecological characteristics. the emitted smoke is transparent. A sourish odor is observed. In the combustion products there are no harmful substances and soot, negatively affecting human health.
- Production characteristics. briquettes make the work of the operating staff easier. Even when using the stoves in classic units, the operating time from one charge increases up to 8 hours. In the equipment of pyrolytic or long combustion, the time increases up to 20 hours.
Taking into account all characteristics the boiler is better to heat not with wood but with briquettes.
Solid fuel boiler is a heat generator, which uses as fuel: coal. black or brown, coke, wood, vegetable waste products, wood chips, as well as pressed fuel briquettes.
There are models, for which all these types of energy carriers can be used. But there are units working only on one type of fuel, these are capable of giving the highest efficiency.
Previously, solid fuel boilers had a rather primitive design, but almost all modern models are equipped with automation, allowing to control the heating process.
Pyrolysis boilers with automatic supply of firewood
In pyrolysis boilers, the furnace consists of two parts: a loading chamber and a combustion chamber. The pyrolysis process takes place in the upper part of the boiler when there is a lack of oxygen and high temperature, and the resulting pyrolysis gases are afterburning in the combustion chamber where the secondary air is supplied (double blow). Basically, the thermal energy in such boilers is formed as a result of burning not wood, but pyrolysis gas, so such boilers are often called gas generators, which often leads to confusion. For example, in Germany similar boilers have only one name: gas generator (Vergaserkessel).
In Russia the same combustion principle is called by two different words. For example, a description of Russian gas-generator boiler, taken from the site of one of the companies: The boiler is based on the principle of gas generation, which allows you to burn fuel with maximum efficiency. The fact is that in traditional heating boilers the fuel is burned at extremely high temperatures in pure oxygen, which is fed under pressure. As a result, a number of chemical reactions take place, the thermal effect of which is much higher than the thermal effect of carbon oxidation. The principle of solid fuel gasification is at the heart of operation of the Rabic two-chamber gas generator boiler. In the first chamber the fuel smolders with emission of smoke and pyrolysis gas. The resulting pyrolysis gas due to natural draft rises to the upper chamber of the boiler, combines with oxygen of heated air (fed through a system of injectors), ignites and burns, emitting a large amount of heat. Thus, there is almost complete combustion of fuel in the boiler.
Charge and combustion chambers are separated by a grate on which wood or other solid fuel is loaded, ignited and a smoke exhauster or a blower is started. In other words, the pyrolysis boiler design differs from the ordinary solid fuel boiler design by the upper blowing device, although simple solid fuel boilers with upper blowing device can be found lately.
When burning pyrolysis gas the burning temperature rises considerably, the amount of energy supplied by the fuel grows, and the combustion efficiency rises considerably, due to which the pyrolysis boilers efficiency reaches 90% and more.
In case of pyrolysis combustion the fuel burns off almost completely, t. е. with low ash content and absence of soot, therefore the boiler does not require frequent maintenance. A significantly longer burning time in pyrolysis boilers than in conventional boilers, with one load of wood (cf. table. 1). some models of the boilers work during one filling up to 12 h. allows you to heat large areas with minimal fuel consumption.
Windhager PuroWIN. wood chip boiler. zero-emission gasification boiler with stainless steel burner
Some European pyrolysis boiler manufacturers have solved the issue with the automatic loading of firewood into the furnace: a rectangular shaped fuel store which can hold up to 400 kg of wood is installed next to the boiler. The fuel is fed as needed by special mini-conveyors with vertical chain conveyors to the feeding chamber of the boiler. Thus, for example, a house of 150 to 300 m 2 can be heated for a whole week in automatic mode pyrolysis boiler 28 kW.
Austrian company Feiba Engineering Plants GmbH offered the solution of automatic wood feeding into the pyrolysis boiler with the help of special manipulator in the form of a mechanical arm, which takes the standard size wood from the fuel warehouse and sends it to a special inclined chute, through which the fuel falls directly to the upper loading section of the pyrolysis boiler. The company presented the technology at an energy savings trade fair (Energiesparmesse) back in the spring of 2011 in Welsh. Welshe (Austria).
Now on the market there is a large number of combined pyrolysis boilers, in the construction of which there is a third separate combustion chamber with a pellet burner. Nearby there is a classic pellet fuel storage with automatic feeding (we told about one of such models of boiler equipment in LPI. 2016 г.).
The main advantages of pyrolysis boilers over conventional solid fuel boilers include:
- The regulation of the combustion process by means of primary air supply and a large loading space provides a fairly long period of operation of the boiler without additional laying of firewood;
- Due to the more complete combustion of fuel, significantly less ash is produced, resulting in reduced time required for ash removal;
- significantly lower emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere;
- it is possible to regulate and control the combustion process.
- more stringent requirements to the quality of fuel, especially to its moisture content;
- dependence on source of electricity, t. к. Without blowing the boiler will not work, which is especially important in Russia for rural areas, where power outages are not uncommon, and the lack of a backup source of electricity can lead to problems in the heating season;
- The high cost of pyrolysis boiler, which is sometimes 2-3 times higher than the cost of a simple solid fuel boiler.
Let us briefly introduce several models of boilers from Russian manufacturers.
At the 2nd International exhibition of industrial heat exchange equipment and autonomous power supply systems HEAT POWER, which was held in late October 2016, the author managed to get acquainted with a rather original design of pyrolysis boiler, produced by the company Teplogarant (Moscow, Russia). Kostroma). This is an air-fired pyrolysis boiler of the Burzhuy-K brand. The manufacturers position their boiler as the equipment with high efficiency, which is due not only to the design features and modern technology, but also to the absence of any coolant: the unit heats directly the air in the room.
Kostromichi offer a range of boilers, ranging from TV-12 (power 12 kW, cost 57,740) and TV-24 (power 24 kW, cost 69,710) and up to TV-100 (power 100 kW, cost 253 000). In addition to hot-air boilers, the plant manufactures a range of pyrolysis hot water industrial boilers with capacities from 150 to 800 kW.
At the same exhibition JSC Shebekinsky Machine-Building Plant from the Belgorod region has presented its pyrolysis boiler KBRP-40 with the following technical specifications: power range of 20-40 kW, efficiency of 78-85%, weight 330 kg, dimensions. 127 x 980 x 965 cm. In such a boiler it is possible to burn wood with a length of 430-580 mm, the ash removal is carried out every 3-7 days; the consumption of wood with the humidity of 20% at the rated output. 10 kg/h.
There are many pyrolysis boiler manufactures in Russia today, for example: KZKO company, which produces boilers under the trade mark Geyser with capacity of 10 to 50 kW, SibEnergotherm company, offering boilers under Prometheus trade mark, Krasnoyarsk plant of heating equipment and automatics, which produces boiler equipment under Zota trade mark, and others. Russian manufacturers install on many pyrolysis boilers as an option teens and gas burners, some boilers of small capacities are equipped with manual draught control.
Unlike foreign counterparts, the Russian equipment is much cheaper, although not inferior to the imported, and in some respects even surpasses it. For example, on the resistance of boiler automation to power surges, which is important for Russia, and low requirements for fuel quality.
Step-by-step instructions for creating a solid fuel long combustion boiler with your own hands according to the drawings
Instead of the usual 24 hours, one charge in the boilers of long combustion is enough for a minimum of 812 hours of operation of the equipment. The exact time between loads depends on the design and type of fuel used.
Advantages and disadvantages of the automatic device
To make a long-burning boiler on your own, you need:
- Metal processing equipment. It will be needed, from marking and preparation of parts, to the final assembly of the finished structure.
- Locksmithing skills. After a few trials, cutting and fitting are accessible even to beginners.
- Experience in welding. Auto modes allow you to quickly learn how to operate an inverter correctly.
All operations will require protective clothing and equipment.
Schematics and drawings
You will need a detailed sketch with dimensions or an assembly drawing for manufacturing. In addition to general. frontal, side and top views. it is desirable to have sections, images of individual assemblies.
All dimensions must be stamped, including:
- loading apertures;
- doors for them;
- air ducts;
- diameters of inlet and outlet pipes;
- heat exchanger;
- ashtray, etc.д.
The more information specified, the easier it is to build. It is useless to hope for schematic correctness of proportions.
It is desirable to repeat the design, confirmed by successful use in a well-functioning heating system. If there is no such prototype, you can focus on industrial models.
List of necessary tools and materials
In order to build a long combustion boiler on wood with their own hands, you will need locksmith‘s tooling and equipment:
- tape measure, ruler. to put the dimensions;
- A scribe, marker or chalk. to apply the markings;
- an electric drill with drills;
- large angle grinder with cutting discs. in the work will be too thick metal for a low-power angle grinder;
- Inverter-type device. suitable for beginners in welding, to work with a transformer requires experience;
- eye and hand protection.
Before you prepare the materials, you need to decide on the construction. The drawings show exactly how much is needed.
- large diameter pipe, or 1-2 old gas cylinders. for the body;
- thick steel plate. for making piston
- metal corner. for distributor of air
- pipes. for air supply, chimney;
- Hinges and handles, asbestos cord for the doors;
- grates or fittings to make them.
Heating scheme with a pump
The circuit with forced circulation is devoid of the disadvantages of the gravity system. The length of pipes and their diameter can be any, you only need to install a powerful pump.
Tools and materials
- copper wires with the section corresponding to the current absorbed by the pump;
- WAGO-type terminals or self-insulating clamps;
- dielectric adhesive tape;
- a box for the cable.
In addition to pipes, fittings and radiators, to install the circuit you will need:
- Membrane expansion vessel. Because of the excess pressure created by the pump system makes closed, so the option for gravity heating is not suitable. You need a red membrane tank. for service water. Blue for drinking costs more.
- Pressure gauge, air vent and safety valve. Together they are called the safety group.
- Three-way valve with thermal head.
What to do with condensation
To avoid entering the boiler tank coolant with a temperature below 50 55 ° C, causing the formation of acid on its walls, near the heater mounted mixing unit.
Automated Wood Chip and Biomass Heating for Small Farms to Large Green Houses | #CDFS20
“Inlet and return are connected by linkage with three-way valve controlled by signals from temperature sensor. If the coolant inlet temperature to the unit cools below a critical temperature, the valve will change position and hot water will flow into the cold.
In this mode the boiler is also started after a long standstill. Until the coolant is warmed up, it circulates in a small circle through the bridge.
The heating system is assembled according to the following rules:
- DU25 pipes are used, in the case of long pipelines DU32 is used.
- Horizontal sections are laid with a slight slope necessary only for drainage of the pipeline. 2-3 mm/m.
- Do not make a dispersal header.
- Install the safety group on the side of the boiler feeding pipe not further than 0,5 m from the boiler. No isolation valves may be located between the heat generator and the devices.
- A pump with a filter and a membrane expansion vessel are connected to the “return” so that they can operate in gentle conditions at a relatively low temperature.
- The pump is placed between the 3-way valve and the heater.
The possibility of emergency release of excessive heat must be provided.
- a branch with radiators in unheated rooms (for example, in a pantry or on a veranda);
- a coil in the boiler tank connected to the water supply on one side and to the sewage system on the other.
On the cooling element, there is an automatically controlled valve that opens on the signal of the temperature sensor.