How to build an oven from a pipe?
Stove for the bath, made with his own hands from a pipe
One of the common options of homemade stoves is a sauna stove from a pipe. Consider how such construction is carried out.
The pipe is an excellent “semi-finished product” for the construction of the furnace
Metal stoves can be made from a sheet of steel or, for example, from an old barrel. But if you find a piece of pipe of suitable diameter in the household, it is worth using this “workpiece”.
Self-made sauna stove from a pipe can be made with a vertical or horizontal direction of a piece of rolled tubing. When using prefabricated pipes for furnaces, the amount of welding work required in the manufacture of furnaces from sheet metal is reduced.
Only high-quality pipes with no signs of corrosion are suitable for making stoves.
If the pipe has been outdoors for a long time, it should be inspected in advance and the problem areas should be strengthened by welding patches.
In order to make a good oven from a pipe you will need a piece of rolled steel 50 cm in diameter and 1.5 m long. The wall thickness of the pipe must be at least 10 mm.
The billet should be cut into two parts, 0.6 and 0.9 meters respectively. A longer section is needed to build the furnace and sauna stove, and the remaining piece will go to make the tank.
How to make a stove
Example of using a chimney stove in the bathhouse
- First, you must make the ash drawer. At the bottom of a long piece of pipe is cut a hole 5 cm high and 20 cm wide. A thick, rounded steel plate is welded over the hole.
- Then we make a niche for the firebox and make the door. The door is hung on hinges or hooks.
- A piece of metal pipe is welded over the furnace. Height of the piece 30-35 cm.
Use rounded stones for filling the sauna heater. If necessary, you can fill it with ceramic insulators.
Making a water heating tank
When building a stove for the bath with their own hands from the pipe is formed and the water heating tank.
Tip! The thickness of metal for the bottom of the water tank. at least 8 mm
- In the bottom of the tank is cut through, necessary for the conduct of the chimney. It should be pushed to the back wall of the tank.
- The flue pipe is fixed to the bottom of the tank by welding. It is important that the joint is of high quality, to prevent water leaks into the furnace.
- The top of the tank is closed with a metal lid with holes made for the passage of the chimney and for pouring water. Flue pipe is welded to the lid tightly, and in the hole for the water intake is installed throat with a lid.
Installing the completed stove
Once the production of the stove for the bath from the pipe with their own hands is finished, you should proceed to install it. At the same time it is necessary to remember about observing the rules that ensure fire safety.
Regardless of whether you bought ready-made equipment or made homemade sauna stoves from the pipe, their installation should be guided by the norms set out in SNiP 41-01-2003:
- If the bath has wooden walls (or walls lined with wood), the distance from the stove to the wall surface should be at least 1 meter.
- The distance from the furnace to the wall can be reduced to 20 cm if the wall is lined with refractory bricks or lined with metal sheets.
- It is advisable to install sauna stoves from the pipe on a pedestal, rising 20 cm from the floor.
- It is desirable to secure the fuel loading area by putting a sheet of metal in front of the furnace.
- The furnace is installed so that the doors of the furnace were turned to the entrance, and the doors of the chamber of the heater. in the opposite direction.
Making with our own hands
To assemble your own heating boiler, which will use used machine oil as fuel, you will have to use the following elements of construction:
- Pump; ;
- Special circulation pump;
- The main pipe for the inlet and outlet of the coolant from the boiler;
- Various equipment designed for welding work.
Be sure to take into account that the structure should be assembled in such a way that it formed a fairly strong draught. You will also need to make a damper, which will allow you to shut off the draught at a moment’s notice. If you buy a special flap for such a boiler is not possible or desirable, then think through a system of protection of air from the outside, because it will be uncontrolled in this case.
In addition, the use of the damper does not allow the room to cool too much if the equipment will be at a standstill for a certain time, so such an element is still desirable to install.
Homemade design is equipped with an open design burner, resulting in the combustion of oxygen in the room. Its lack can cause carbon monoxide poisoning, so you need to think about how to ventilate the room.
It is strictly forbidden to install flammable materials of any kind near the boiler. Touching the boiler when it is running is forbidden, because it heats up quite strongly.
The easiest way to install the assembled with your own hands heating boiler on the stone or on a heat-resistant tile. Do not cover it with panels made of plastic or wood, as this could cause a fire. It can be painted with heat-resistant materials. If you follow all the features of the technology, the output will be a reliable device that will work steadily, without creating a threat to life, health and property of people.
Necessary materials and tools for work
In order to get a quality result when making a boiler on liquid fuel with your own hands, it is necessary to choose the right material for work and select the right tools.
- Sheet steel. It is needed for making the upper and lower airtight container. The thickness of the material should be about 4 mm, because the furnace heats up very strongly.
- Metal pipes. The pipe must be made of steel, as the old cast-iron product can crack under the rapid change in temperature. The inner diameter of the pipe should not be less than 10 cm, and the wall thickness. about 4 mm.
From the tools for making a boiler with a blow-up on the exhaust, you need to buy the following:
- Machine for welding. You can use a household inverter machine with electrodes for ferrous metals, as a large amount of work is not expected.
- Strups will be needed for more convenient work, they will be used to fasten the workpieces for welding.
- angle grinder and a few metal cutting discs, so you can make a large number of cuts.
- Electric drill. Using this tool you can drill holes in the burner. For work you will also need a drill bit for metal with a diameter of 1 cm.
- Puncher is an additional tool, it is used for nailing points before drilling holes. A hammer is necessary for the puncher.
- Measuring tools. Use a tape measure, ruler and square to mark out the blanks.
Principle of operation and advantages of homemade boilers
To heat a room or an entire building, using the thermal energy of burning old oils, boilers of this type work on a principle reminiscent of pyrolysis. The fuel at the bottom of the chamber is first heated until there is no flammable vapor. They rise up, mix with air and burn, releasing heat. It is transmitted directly to the water jacket of the unit through the walls of the chamber. To understand the process, below is a schematic diagram of a waste oil boiler.
top cover; 2. control cabinet; 3. power unit; 4. fan; 5. pump; 6. fuel tank; 7. waste oils; 8. settling tank; 9. tap for emptying; 10. oil pipe; 11. door for ignition and maintenance; 12, 16. supply and return pipes, respectively, to which the heating system is connected; 13. pipe for air supply in the combustion zone; 14. water jacket; 15. flame tubes; 17. combustion chamber; 18. condensate collector; 19. draught regulator; 20. chimney.
To understand whether it is worth doing this business, or it is better to just buy a factory ready-made boiler, it is necessary to analyze what are the advantages of self-made units. They are quite essential:
- Low cost. Even if you entrust the work to experienced craftsmen, pay for it and buy all the materials, the homemade waste heat boiler will cost you half as much as the factory one.
- All types of waste oil can be incinerated, and, if necessary, diesel fuel.
- It is always possible to improve the design or supplement it with automation means.
- Since using waste oil as fuel requires very little ash after burning, it does not take long to maintain the heat source.
- Qualitatively assembled unit with a set of automatics in the work does not require constant attention and frequent visits to the furnace room, you only need to fill the fuel tank in time.
Of the disadvantages you can highlight some inertness, it lies in the fact that after the cessation of air supply into the combustion zone the process does not stop immediately, it takes some time, during which the coolant continues to warm up. Further, after the extinction of the flame waste-heat boilers will need to be ignited manually, unless a special device is provided for this purpose.
Improved design self-made boilers for heating on the exhaust are equipped with the function of “idling”, when the air is fed into the chamber very little. This is done to maintain a small flame when intensive heating of the coolant is not required. After its cooling down, the air supply is resumed and the heat generator goes into operation.
When you think to make heating with exhaust, you should understand that in the furnace room will not be as clean as when using gas or electricity. This is an unavoidable attribute of using spent fuel, as well as the presence of a specific smell. It is also necessary to organize filtration of oil from metal chips and other solid particles, so they do not clog up the fuel path.
Working principle of the boiler on the exhaust
The principle of boilers operating on recycled fuel is in all cases the same. It consists in evaporation of oil and combustion of steam from it.
But there are small nuances to this technology. All waste oils contain many heavy metals, additives and other elements. The task is to build a unit that will allow to accumulate heat inside, instead of venting all these elements into the chimney. Full oxidation of all elements occurs only if the maximum temperature of 6000C is reached inside the boiler.
The temperature value in this case is a very important point. If we do not go into a long explanation of the chemical processes, then we can say in short: the harmless combustion and evaporation of fuel can only take place at a temperature of 600 degrees. A deviation of 200 degrees to one or the other side causes the release of very harmful toxic substances.
Self-made waste oil boiler looks like this: two metal reservoirs connected by a pipe, and they are at different heights. The upper tank is equipped with a chimney whose length must be at least one meter.
Waste oil is poured into the bottom tank. The top layer of oil in the evaporation chamber is heated, resulting in the formation of steam. As it rises, it exits into the perforated pipe and connects with the air, reaches the upper tank and burns. And the combustion products themselves are led out through a chimney.
Thus, the room is heated, but it does not emit toxic waste, harmful to human health. This fact immediately answers the main question that many are interested before the construction of such a unit: “How harmful the waste-heat boiler is??”.
With proper design and compliance with all the necessary technical points, the boiler on spent fuel does not pose a threat to human health. But here you need to clearly adhere to the operating conditions and understand that this unit is suitable for heating only domestic premises. To perform such a device for heating the house can not. After all, it uses waste fuel, which is difficult to classify as a clean type of fuel.
The principle of operation and technology of oil evaporation in such a unit should be clearly understood. Here it is not the oil itself that burns, but its vapors. Due to the fact that the spent fuel before the beginning of combustion is heated up and begins to evaporate, it is possible to decompose such a burning fuel into lighter elements.
Where such heating units are used?
- in production facilities;
- in animal housing;
- in machine shops, service stations;
- in greenhouses;
- In warehouses and garages.
As fuel for such a boiler can be used almost any oil, including depreciation oil.
How to set up a boiler on the waste oil with a water loop. making their own hands and operation
Furnaces for burning recycled oil were developed at the beginning of the last century. Currently, they are used not only for the disposal of industrial waste, but also allow you to heat small outbuildings and other economic premises, as well as summer houses. In this article we will talk about the principles of heating from a waste oil boiler with a water circuit, as well as how to build such a unit with your own hands.
It is worth noting that used oil is very cheap and in some cases it can be picked up for free with self-delivery, as it is not profitable for service stations, restaurants or repair shops to dispose of the waste themselves. Therefore, this type of heating is considered cost-effective for the consumer.
Boiler on the waste oil with their own hands: making a homemade boiler on the exhaust
It should be understood that such a makeshift structure must be made clearly in accordance with established fire safety standards.
To protect the room from fire, we also recommend adhering to the following rules:
- The diameter of the flue pipe must be at least 100 mm. Ideally, the use of sandwich pipes, which produce a minimum amount of soot on their surface.
- It is forbidden to store easily flammable objects (fuel tanks) in the vicinity of the tanks.
- All joints must be airtight.
- The thickness of the walls of the tanks, where the combustion of fuel must be at least 4 mm.
- In order to ensure the flow of fresh air into the room and to avoid smoke, it is necessary to equip the boiler room with a forced circulation system. Air exchange rate per 1 cubic meter of floor area is 180 m3/h.
Structural subtleties of self-made equipment
Preheating of the oil is considered to be the most important part of the combustion process. This enables the “heavy” fuel to be broken down into its lighter components. Properly selected parameters allow almost smokeless and complete combustion of waste oil.
Craftsmen at home believe that the easiest way to achieve this result is to use a thick-walled heated bowl of metal, into which the waste is fed in droplets.
One of the possible schemes of operating the heating equipment with oil evaporation
When the oil touches the red-hot metal it immediately turns into vapours, which it sends to the combustion chamber. For better combustion they need to be mixed with air. Air duct is used for this purpose.
A propeller is installed in its mouth to create a swirling flow needed for the oil-air mixture to stay long enough in the combustion chamber. Only in this case the fuel fed into the bowl will burn completely.
A certain difficulty in the process of activating the heater is the heating of the evaporation bowl.
The easiest way to do it is to put a wick soaked in any flammable composition inside the tank. After that pour a little gasoline or diesel fuel on the bottom of the bowl and ignite. After the metal is heated to the desired temperature, begin feeding the oil. This is the simplest, but quite dangerous way.
Another difficult thing to implement is the oil supply. There are many examples of jet-fed boilers operating on Waste Oil on the Internet and in other open sources.
Yes, such a system is workable, but it is extremely dangerous for the user. The oil in a jet does not have time to burn. Large amounts of toxic substances are produced that can enter the room. And that’s very dangerous.
This is how you can organize the drip feed of used oil into the evaporation bowl. You use a nipple, T-pieces and a piece of medical drip
For the efficient smokeless burning of the used oil, it is necessary to arrange the oil feed with a drip feed. It is complicated enough, but quite solvable. In the opinion of home masters, the optimal method of drip feeding is as follows.
You need to get a hose that will work as an oil line. It must have a filter attached to one end to clean the supplied waste from impurities and contaminants.
It must be a full filtration automotive oil filter. The latter is very important. Not partial, but full. You have to be prepared to change it often. On average, once every 30 days, if not more often. It depends on the quality of your fuel.
Some complexity may arise in the process of fixing the node. It is equipped with a thread that can be used to fasten it in the vehicle.
You could do the following. You should find a small piece of oil-resistant hose, the diameter of which will coincide with the cross-section of the thread, and put it on the filter. The assembly is connected to the oil pipe by a socket.
It is very important that there is no excess oil accumulated in the oil supply hose, otherwise drip feeding will not be possible.
Used oil boiler of pyrolysis type. Due to the presence of afterburning chamber the burning time of one portion of fuel increases significantly
Optionally, the pump can be dimensioned so that it only outputs the required amount of waste. But it is very difficult. A simpler variant is used in industrially assembled boilers. It is a simple construction of a T-piece, socket and nipple.
It can easily be used to regulate the necessary quantity of oil. Excess will return to the fuel tank.
The last element of the drip system is a fragment of a medical dropper. It is necessary to take a section with a regulating wheel. The element will allow to control the speed and frequency of fuel supply to the bowl. A fragment of the dropper is firmly fixed on the socket.
It is optimal that the waste should not stink and should burn steadily. It is possible only if the oil has a normal fluidity. For this its temperature must be within 10-20 ° C.
It is necessary to know that every time the composition or temperature of the waste oil changes, the frequency and speed of drip oil supply will have to be adjusted. To supply fuel directly from the dropper to the combustion chamber is not possible. It is directed to the funnel connected with the pipe that feeds the fuel to the bowl.
In this simple way you can organize a uniform supply of oil into the chamber and thereby prolong the burning time of one portion of fuel
Boiler construction can be different. It can be connected to the pipes of the heating system. Mandatory condition in this case. installation of a pump to ensure efficient circulation of coolant.
If the so-called water jacket is built around the device, it will heat water. If the water circuit is only one. the boiler will serve only for heating. If there are two contours. will also provide a hot water supply.
Tank for periodic refilling of fuel
Another option. an integrated heat exchanger in the form of the letter U. It is placed in the upper part of the furnace and connected to the remote tank, which will hold the hot water. Alternative variant. placement of the heat exchanger on the chimney.
A waste-heat boiler can be pyrolytic. Its basic feature. the possibility of long term work on one fuel charge. Structurally such model differs with availability of afterburning chamber.
Homemade Waste Oil Burner
This is where the final combustion of all the chemical elements that make up the waste oil takes place. Due to the presence of afterburning chamber, the operation time of pyrolysis boiler on one portion of oil is greatly increased.
Advantages and disadvantages of self-made boilers
or less decent boilers on the exhaust, created by eminent manufacturers, are quite expensive. from 30-40 thousand, not counting the tank for fuel (it is purchased separately). There are many models on the market, which differ in thermal capacity and functionality. If there is no money to buy a factory-made oil boiler for a private home, people prefer self-made boilers.
Let’s see why so good boiler on the exhaust with a water loop, made his own hands:
- Cheap. if you have the necessary materials at hand, you only need to spend money on electrodes for a welding machine and waste oil.
- Stable operation. if you perform the boiler according to the drawings, the combustion will be smooth and stable, as implemented in the factory samples.
- It is possible to make changes in the design. you do not have to worry about warranty loss, because there is no warranty.
- Ability to make the boiler on the waste oil more robust and reliable. factory models made in recent years, are characterized by rather weak nodes. Choosing a reliable and thick metal, you can make a homemade boiler more durable and long-lasting;
- Ease of repair. homemade waste oil boiler has a simple design, with which you are familiar as no one else.
- Improvised exhaust heating boilers may differ in efficiency from their factory-made counterparts, and to a lesser extent.
- In case of improper assembly, the emergence of emergency situations is possible.
- Low level of safety. but here much depends on the experience of the assembler and compliance with safety rules.
- Difficult to regulate the heat output to stabilize the air temperature in the heated rooms.
There are disadvantages, but they also exist in factory models.