Can I Add Chlorhexidine to the Humidifier
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant microflora are an ever-growing threat in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Nosocomial infections lead to a decrease in the effectiveness of ongoing therapy, increased duration of hospitalization and increased mortality.
Chlorhexidine bigluconate was developed in Great Britain in 1950. It is the first internationally recognized antiseptic for skin and wounds. One of the advantages of chlorhexidine, in addition to its pronounced antimicrobial action, is its ability to bind to various biological substrates while maintaining its antibacterial activity, and then slowly release it, which results in maintaining effective concentrations of the drug. To date, there are no reports of resistance to chlorhexidine, despite more than 60 years of active use of the drug in the clinic. Chlorhexidine gluconate remains important in the prevention of nosocomial infections.
The widespread use of antiseptic methods for the prevention and treatment of infections followed the publication of Joseph Lister’s work ≪Antiseptic Principle in Surgical Practice≫ in 1867. At the same time, Lister’s antiseptic ≪ met with fierce opponents, whose main argument was the toxicity of the antiseptic they used (carbolic acid). Despite the availability of numerous antiseptic agents, the question of safety and efficacy of this group of drugs remains a constant concern. ≪The longevity≫of chlorhexidine and the prospects for its continued use as one of the most powerful antiseptics that are widely used in clinical practice is a pressing issue for clinicians.
The cationic detergent (detergent), later called chlorhexidine, was synthesized in the development of antimalarials in 1947. This compound has bactericidal antimicrobial activity, especially against Gram-positive microorganisms. Of the 10,040 compounds, the first to come to market was chlorhexidine gluconate, registered in 1954 by Imperial Chemical Industries Co.LTD (UK) as ≪Hibitan≫. the first globally recognized antiseptic for treatment of wound surfaces and skin. In 1957, only 3 years after its introduction onto the market, the indications for its use were broadened from skin treatment to include ophthalmology, urology, gynecology and otorhinolaryngology. In 1959. Chlorhexidine began to be used to control bacterial plaque, leading to its widespread use in dentistry. Currently in clinical practice, chlorhexidine is preferred not only for skin treatment (hands, operating field), but also as an oral antiseptic, including for the prevention of nosocomial infection. The most commonly used concentrations are 0.2% and 0.12% solutions. Besides its influence on plaque and gum condition (gingivitis), chlorhexidine is effective in preventing and treating cavities, secondary infections after dental procedures or implants. Chlorhexidine reduces the bacterial load and the risk of bacteremia after dental procedures. It is also used in the treatment of recurrent atrophic stomatitis and denture-associated stomatitis, especially in patients with orthodontic appliances, immune disorders. One of the main advantages of chlorhexidine, in addition to its powerful antimicrobial action, is its ability to retain its antimicrobial activity when bound to various substrates. In doing so, it is slowly released while maintaining an effective concentration. This property is known as active substance. Chlorhexidine is not affected by blood, pus, saliva. Chlorhexidine is pharmaceutically incompatible with soaps and detergents (e.g., containing lauryl sulfate), alkalis and other anionic compounds (colloids, gummiarabic, carboxymethylcellulose), with iodine. Compatible with ethyl alcohol, benzalkonium chloride (contained in local contraceptives Farmatex and Benatex). Ethanol increases the effectiveness of the product. Bactericidal effect increases with temperature. At temperatures above 100 ° C, the drug partially decomposes. Usable in a neutral medium; at pH 5-8 there is little difference in activity; at pH over 8 it precipitates. Use of hard water reduces the bactericidal effect. Compatible with medications containing a cationic group (benzalkonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide).
The unique combination of properties of chlorhexidine also causes a variety of dosage forms.
Chlorhexidine is available in the following forms: 20% solution-concentrate. intended for dilution before use, used in medical institutions; 0.05% solution in plastic and glass vials of 70 and 100 ml. used without dilution, including at home; Vaginal suppositories ≪Hexicon≫ with 0.016 g chlorhexidine, package of 1 or 10 suppositories; Vaginal suppositories ≪Hexicon D≫ with 0.008 g chlorhexidine. intended for children, package of 10 suppositories; Gel containing 0.5% chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine is included in the following preparations: Oral rinses for dental diseases and manipulations (tooth extraction, opening of abscesses, professional cleaning, etc.).п.). Elgidium, Amident, Eludrill; Gum gels designed to treat dental diseases and relieve pain in the mouth (for example, when getting used to dentures), one component of which is chlorhexidine. Dicloran Denta, Elugel, Metrohex, Parodium, Elgifluor, Dentamet, Metrogil denta; Elgidium toothpaste; Solutions with other antiseptics. Bactoderm (with benzalkonium chloride), Chlorhexidine alcohol spray. for treatment of skin infections, Citeal (with hexamidine and chlorocresol). for local use in gynecology, dermatology; Ointments Bepanten plus and Depantol (with panthenol. wound healing effect), Bemilon (with betamethasone. anti-inflammatory effect); Vaginal suppositories Depantol (with panthenol). used in gynecology after surgical interventions; Chlorhexidine in combination with lidocaine for local anesthetic effect in the spray Lidocaine-Asept and gels Instillagel and Katejel with lidocaine; Tablets for throat pain, stomatitis and other diseases of the mouth and mouth. Hexoral tabs, Anti-Angin formula, Sebidin.
Review: The Kemerovo Pharmaceutical Factory “Chlorhexidine. 11 ways of using Chlorhexidine you did not know about
Liquid colorless, almost odorless, tastes bitterly unpleasant.
And now about the possibilities of using Chlorhexidine in our lives.
1) We use it as a hand sanitizer when there is no possibility to wash hands, put a small amount of liquid on a wet napkin or just on the hands and wipe.2) For cuts, sores, wounds, burns, treatment of skin after shaving, it does not sting and perfectly treats germs, heals.3) We add chlorhexidine solution to water or use the undiluted solution to wash furniture, floors, doors, cabinets, tables, an excellent alternative to means with m chlorine, chlorhexidine does not smell, and performs the same functions. Especially important if there are young children in the home.4) For sore throat, sore throat, chronic colds, gargle 5 times a day. Take a tablespoon of the solution and rinse for 30 seconds. Do not swallow under any circumstances. For adults only. Throat rinses are not recommended for children under 12 years of age. 5) To treat piercings, ear piercing, tattoos.6) Rinsing the mouth in case of oral problems, stomatitis, gingivitis, periodontitis, after tooth extraction, bad odor.7) Weak solution can be used on all surfaces, even utensils, as well as hygiene items, such as razors, scissors, combs. 8) Add a small amount to a humidifier, thus disinfecting the air in the room.9) Effective remedy for acne, but in the initial stages of formation. 10) Prevention of STIs, herpes virus, CMV, and such venereal diseases as syphilis, ureaplasma, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc.11) Gynecological Problems. Erosions, vaginitis, colpitis, candidiasis (thrush).
This is a universal, useful, and, most importantly, affordable remedy. Attention! An allergic reaction is possible. Avoid contact with the eyes. A doctor’s consultation is recommended before using.
If the child only licks the bottle of sanitizer, his health is probably not in danger. Rinse his mouth and explain that you should not do this. But if a certain dose has been drunk, then immediately call an ambulance, because in addition to alcohol, the solution contains a lot of other substances that are not safe for internal organs. They can burn the esophagus and stomach, and in large quantities can lead to death.
Study the composition of the sanitizer. If the alcohol is less than 60%, it will have less effect on the skin, but will be of little use against coronavirus and other microorganisms. Is it worth buying such a product in the midst of a pandemic?? We do not think it will be useful, so choose antiseptics with 60─80% alcohol.
Nasal irrigation: benefits and harms
Recently, nasal lavage with systems like Dolphin, Aqua Maris lemon, and nasal lavage with the yoga system has become increasingly popular.
Let’s start with the pleasant benefits, indeed, there are.
Firstly, when washing the nasal mucosa gets moist, which is extremely important in the Ural region, for example, due to the low humidity, especially during the heating season.
Secondly, during nasal lavage not only dust particles but also pathogenic microorganisms (viral particles, bacteria, etc.) are mechanically cleared from the nose. д.).
Despite the obvious benefits, amateur rinsers often become patients of otorhinolaryngologists.
The fact that with volumetric nasal lavage, pressurized water flows not only into the nose, but also into the nasopharynx. It is not always possible to evacuate the fluid quickly through the mouth, or through another ½ The mucous membrane of the nose, especially if the nose is stuffy, when the mucous membrane swells up. The liquid, forced to take the path of least resistance, is sent through the auditory tube directly into the middle ear. With all the consequences, both literally and figuratively. The microflora is carried into the tympanic cavity (normally, the middle ear is a relatively sterile environment). This, in turn, can provoke an infectious inflammation of the middle ear otitis.
In children, the problem becomes even more acute. Anatomical features of small children provoke the rapid spread of the infectious process: 1. Short and gaping auditory tubes, 2. Horizontal location of the auditory tubes, 3. Adenoids in the nasopharynx.
Based on the above, volumetric lavage is extremely risky, especially in young children.
To preserve the pluses of irrigation and prevent the minuses as much as possible, saline solutions in the nose are recommended either sprayed (sprays), or dripped.
There are two main types of saline solutions: physiological and hypertonic. They differ in the concentration of salt in the solution and, consequently, the principle of action.
Physiological (normotonic, isotonic) solutions, 0.9% r corresponds to the normal salinity of mucus (blood, etc.).п.) and are used to prevent infection and moisten the nasal mucosa.
For example, in the drugstore you can find: Physiomer Soft and Moderate flushing, physiological solution, Akvalor Soft or Akvalor Baby, Akva Maris, Marimer isotonic, Hummer 150. But the main favorite: saline. solution (the only disadvantage of which is the ease of use) is cheap and seldom used. It can be applied with an eyedropper or without pressure from a small syringe.
Hypertensive saline solutions. Relieve mucosal edema, improve the outflow from the sinuses due to the high concentration of salt in the nasal cavity. It happens due to natural physiological processes: where there is more salt, there comes water. Therefore, the fluid leaves the tissues and sinuses and exits into the nasal lumen, from where it is evacuated by simple scraping.
An additional bonus is the destruction of the cell wall of the bacteria by the same mechanism as in the removal of edema, the cells seem to explode from the inside. Minus some possible drying out of the mucous membranes, which passes after the drugs are removed.
Therefore, hypertonic solutions are not recommended for use longer than 30 days. Hypertonic solutions are used, e.g. in case of acute respiratory infections.
Here are some examples of hypertonic solutions: Akvalor Forte, Huemer Hypertonic, Aqua Maris Strong, Quicks, Marimer Hypertonic, Physiomer Hypertonic, or 1 teaspoon of salt (even sea salt or table salt) per 1 cup of water, without the slide.
Attention! Some of the above preparations have incorrect instructions. Solutions are either sprinkled (head upright) or buried.
Contraindications. Consult a specialist before using.
The aqueous solution is prescribed to be taken in the following cases:
For the prevention of syphilis, genital herpes and other vaginal diseases;
Decontamination of removable dentures, disinfection of wounds;
Alcohol solution is used for the treatment of hands and medical devices, before surgical interventions. The solution is also used to treat the working surface of medical equipment.
Vaginal suppositories are effective for the following conditions:
In order to prevent infections that can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse;
Preventing inflammations and infections before operations, childbirth, or abortions.
To prevent sexually transmitted diseases, after unprotected sexual intercourse, after 2 hours maximum, administer 2-3 ml of 0.5% solution to the urinary tract of a man, 1 ml to a woman’s canal and 5-10 ml to her vagina. You can treat the areas of skin near the genitals with the product. After administering the drug, you should try to postpone urination for 2 hours.
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About irrigation for gynecological diseases should tell the doctor.
In case of sore throat, mouthwash with 0.5% or 0.2% chlorohexidine solution.
In case of inflammatory pathologies of the urinary tract it is necessary to inject 2-3 ml of 0.05% agent into the urinary canal.
Before using the drug you should consult with your doctor.
Chlorhexidine: a good antiseptic to kill bacteria and viruses
Chlorhexidine belongs to the group of antiseptic and bactericidal drugs of broad Spectra action for external and local use. It is based on the substance bigluconate, as well as purified water or alcohol. The solution is available on the market in different concentrations. In this article, we understand in more detail what a chlorhexidine solution is and where it is used.
Cost History of Chlorhexidine 0.05%, solution for local and external use, 100 ml, 1 pc.
(equivalent to chlorhexidine bigluconate)
Colorless or light yellow, transparent liquid, odorless or faintly odorless.
Aqueous chlorhexidine bigluconate solution is a topical antiseptic with predominantly bactericidal action.
Antiseptic agent exhibits bacteriostatic or bactericidal action against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, depending on the concentration used.
Bacteriostatic effect appears at a concentration of 001% or less; bactericidal. At a concentration of more than 001% at 22 ° C and exposure for 1 min.
What can I put in my humidifier to kill bacteria?
Fungicidal action. at a concentration of 005% at 22 ° C and exposure for 10 minutes.
Virulicidal effect (against lipophilic viruses). Appears at a concentration of 001-1%.
Effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (including.ч. Treponema spp. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Ureaplasma spp. Bacteroides fragilis Chlamydia spp.); protozoa (Trichomonas vaginalis); viruses and fungi. Affects bacterial spores only at elevated temperatures.
Stable after treatment of the skin (operating field hands) remains on the skin in a certain amount sufficient for the bactericidal effect. Retains activity (although somewhat reduced) in the presence of blood pus of various secretions and organic substances.
Rarely causes allergic reactions skin and tissue irritation does not have a damaging effect on objects made of glass plastic and metal.
The drug is not absorbed into the systemic bloodstream when applied topically or externally and has no systemic action.
Practically not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After accidental ingestion of 300 mg, the maximum concentration is reached after 30 minutes and is 0206 µg/L.
Mostly excreted in the faeces (90%) less than 1% is excreted by the kidneys.
As a therapeutic and prophylactic agent in various infections for antiseptic treatment and disinfection. 005% and 02% solutions: prevention of sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, ureaplasma, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes). Use no later than 2 hours after sexual intercourse); decontamination of the skin (abrasions, cracks).
Purulent wounds infected burns bacterial and fungal skin diseases and mucous membranes in t.ч. in dentistry (gargling and irrigation). Gingivitis stomatitis aphthae periodontitis alveolitis) surgery urology obstetrics-gynecology. 02% solution: for reproductive tract treatment and sanitation in gynecology for therapeutic and diagnostic procedures for disinfection of removable dentures. 05% solution: for treating wounds and burn surfaces; for treating infected surfaces and cracked skin and open mucous membranes.
For sterilization of medical instruments at 70 ° C; disinfection of the working surfaces of devices (t.ч. thermometers) and equipment heat treatment of which is undesirable. 1% solution: disinfection of thermometers, surfaces of medical equipment and instruments thermal treatment of which is undesirable treatment of the operating field and surgeon’s hands before surgery skin disinfection treatment of postoperative and burn wounds. 5% solution: to prepare aqueous glycerine and alcohol solutions with concentrations from 001 to 1%.
How to use and doses
Chlorhexidine as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent is used topically and topically.
005% 02% and 05% aqueous solutions are used in the form of irrigations, rinses and applications. 5-10 ml of the solution is applied to the affected skin surface or mucous membranes for 1-3 minutes 2-3 times a day (on a tampon or by irrigation).
Medical instruments and work surfaces are treated with a clean sponge dampened with antiseptic solution or by soaking.
For the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases the drug is effective if applied not later than 2 hours after sexual intercourse. To insert the content of the vial into the urethra for men (2-3 ml), women (1-2 ml) and the vagina (5-10 ml) for 2-3 minutes with the help of a nozzle. To treat the skin on the inner surfaces of the thighs and genitals. Do not urinate for 2 hours after the treatment.
Complex treatment of urethritis and urethroprostatitis by injecting into the urethra 2-3 ml of 005% chlorhexidine solution 1-2 times a day. 10 days treatment every other day.
If, after the treatment, no improvement or worsening of symptoms occurs, or if new symptoms develop, it is necessary to consult a doctor. Apply the drug only according to those indications to the way of use and in those doses that are listed in the instructions.
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Use during pregnancy and lactation
Chlorhexidine can be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding if the expected benefits to the mother exceed the potential risk to the fetus or child.
Before using the drug if you are pregnant or think you might be pregnant or are planning to become pregnant while breastfeeding, you should consult your doctor.
Hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine and other components of the drug dermatitis
How to clean an ultrasonic or conventional humidifier
Before proceeding, you must familiarize yourself with the stages of humidifier cleaning. It is important to strictly follow the sequence in order not to break the device.
- The first thing to do is to disconnect the device from the mains.
- After that pull out and disassemble all the components, pour out the water.
- Rinse the filter with cold running water.
- Wipe all other parts with a damp cloth.
- Pour a cleaning liquid into the tank and leave it for a few hours (it depends on how quickly the dirt will be removed).
- After that, the solution is poured out, the tank is thoroughly washed and wiped dry.
- Repeat the procedure if necessary.