Classification of brick ovens
From the very name of heating stoves, it becomes clear that these stoves are designed for heating premises, both residential and non-residential (garage, hangar, greenhouse, etc.).d.).
In this article, we will consider options for heating stoves made of bricks. The variety of such furnaces is great and they differ primarily in the internal structure of the smoke channels.
Furnace with horizontal channels
In such a system, a cleaning door must be installed on each horizontal channel to remove ash and soot that settles on the horizontal surface of the channels. In such a furnace, hot gases do not linger in the furnace itself, but give off heat only in the direction of the chimney.
Furnace with horizontal channels and heat s
In this design of the furnace, there are thermal s in the channels, in which heat is accumulated. The average cross section of the channel along the entire length became larger, which led to a decrease in the velocity of gases. At a lower speed of movement of gases, heat transfer from hot gases to the body of the furnace itself increases. This design of the furnace is more heat-consuming, respectively, with a higher efficiency.
Vertical channel oven
Such a system of channels creates more resistance for the movement of gases, which is both a plus and a minus of this system. Minus. you need a higher chimney to pull gases through the furnace channels. Plus. such a furnace is less blown out due to greater resistance in the channels. Accordingly, this system is more heat-consuming than the first option. The second drawback is the overheating of the first channel, and as a result, the occurrence of serious internal stresses. (read-cracking of the masonry of the furnace body).
This system differs from the system with vertical channels (var.2) the fact that the lower channel in it is wider. This leads to the fact that the speed of movement of gases in it decreases and the heat exchange between hot gases and the walls of the furnace itself increases. This option is better than option 2.
This system is based on the principle of free movement of gases. It does not have thermal channels through which gases move, but there is a cap. Hot gases, having risen to the top, cool down the hood (giving up their heat to the furnace), go down and exit into the chimney. After all the firewood burns into the ovens, hot gases remain in the cap, continuing to give their heat. Such a stove does not need a high chimney. Such an oven is practically not blown out. The cap or caps can be of different shapes and size, which allows you to make a furnace of any shape and size. In the housing furnaces you can use any fuel-Gas and electrotane. In bell-type furnaces, efficiency is higher and they are more economical. This system is more winning than options 1 2 3.
It is allowed to use combined smoke-rotation systems in the furnaces. The combinations are different and there are a lot of them. When designing, it is possible to combine vertical, horizontal turns and caps in different versions.
Furnace with combined smoke recovery system
As an example, a combination of horizontal channels with a countercurrent system. There is also a forward flow system.
Smoke recovery oven with co-current system and slits
Such a system is not suitable for a heating stove, but is suitable for fireplaces, barbecues, Russian stoves and in some cases for sauna stoves. Of course, this scheme can be improved by adding a heat load with cuts to it, but all the same, such a system is not suitable for space heating. Heating stoves allow the use of additional functions. Common options for such furnaces:
- Heating stove with hob. Such an oven not only heats the room, but also allows you to cook or heat something on the stove. Lack of this furnace: low fuel, less heat capacity of the ovens itself, relatively fast cooling of the furnace through the stove.
- Heating furnace with a loose chamber (oven). Such a furnace is more heatwise and significantly wins the welding stove in the furnace. There are two options for such an oven:. permanent action. Hot gases do not pass through the ovens itself, but they only warm it from the bottom or on all sides. So-called clean loaf Periodic action. Hot gases pass through the oven, heating it from the inside. Cooking in such an oven only after full combustion of firewood in the fuel.
- Water Register Heating Furnace. This stove allows you to heat water radiators (batteries) and distribute heat throughout the room. But it is better to use a specialized furnace-boiler for this purpose.
Heating stoves can be combined. You can put the stove and oven, register and oven at the same time, etc.d. You can make a stove with two fireboxes. Each fuel is working on its load (which is more correct). Such heating stoves can be combined with a fireplace (open or closed). Also, such stoves can be made with a stove bench and or with a heating shield on the second floor.
Plenty of options for heating stoves. You can always choose for yourself the oven that best meets your requirements.
Heating furnace with bottom heating, size 2250×510 mm
The heating furnace has dimensions, mm: 2250x510x2480.
Material consumption (excluding the foundation and chimney) Next:
- red brick. 740 pcs.,
- refractory brick. 40 pcs.,
- red clay. 25 buckets,
- refractory clay. 1 bucket,
- sand. 15 buckets,
- furnace door. 250 × 210 mm,
- blower door. 250 × 140 mm,
- smoke damper. 130×250 mm,
- grate. 380×252 mm,
- cleaning doors with a size of 130 × 140 mm. 7 pcs.,
- pre-furnace sheet. 500 × 700 mm.
The furnace can fold one stove within 30 hours, in addition, it will take about 8 hours to prepare a clay-sand mortar and bring materials.
The heat output of the furnace with a one-time firebox per day is 6 kW (5100 kcal / h), with a two-time firebox. about 7.1 kW (6100 kcal / h). The stove is designed for space heating up to 60 m². Drawings of cuts and ordering are shown in fig. eight.
When laying the fifth row, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the order, since this row determines the main dimensions of the chimneys of the lower heating chamber. The twenty-third row also determines the main dimensions of the chimneys of the upper heating chamber. It is not recommended to reduce or increase the size of chimneys when laying subsequent rows.
Options for installing a stove in the house
A brick heating stove for a summer residence or a private house is located near the internal partitions of the building. It is good if there are smoke channels in the walls that go to the roof.
- the hearth is set so that its walls give off heat to the room, an open installation simplifies cleaning of passages, maintenance;
- the structure is placed closer to the entrance in order to reduce the distance for the fuel tray;
- the stove is not placed near the outer wall with window openings, the massive structure darkens the room, the illuminated part of the room turns out to be filled with a stove.
Make a new wood stove and oven. From red bricks and cement
If the structure is adjacent to the wall, a thickening (rough) is made on the reverse side, channels pass through it to heat the adjacent room.
How much does it cost to build an outdoor brick oven complex on your own
To make a brick oven with your own hands, you had to buy:
All work on the construction of the furnace complex has been done on its own, about a month (when working for 9-10 hours per day).
In the future, the user installed a used grate from the grate on the brazier, which he cleaned properly.
Now you can perfectly cook delicious food on coals in a brick oven.
You can ask StooDent a question and download the drawings and ordering of its outdoor oven complex in the topic: “Construction of a 3in1 oven complex”.
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Watch the video of the street complex with the oven of the ancient Aryans.
Heating a room at no extra cost: how to build a brick oven for a summer residence?
In the off-season and in winter, the country stove allows you to heat the house well and cook food.
The brick heats up slowly, but gives off heat for a long time, creating a comfortable temperature for 6-7 hours. If there is a brass cabinet in the oven, from the evening the food remains warm until the morning.
Metal furnaces, unlike brick, quickly heated, but also quickly cool together with the house. Brick stoves radiate soft, comfortable heat and evenly warm the house.
Overview of brick ovens
The most popular and time-tested basic designs are widely used by stove makers: they make small adjustments to them, adjusting the size and functionality to the customer’s desire. However, the principle of their operation is preserved, so all brick stoves can be divided into several groups.
Differs in massiveness, large dimensions and wide functionality. It consists of an open firebox, which in some cases is closed with dampers, as well as extended smoke channels passing along all the stove walls and well heating them. Sometimes a Russian oven equip one more furnace with a hob.
The Russian stove, in addition to heating, allows you to:
- cook a variety of food. boil, fry, stew, bake;
- dry things and shoes;
- to heat a couch or bed used for sleeping and relaxing.
The efficiency of the Russian stove is not too high. up to 60%, in addition, its firebox requires certain skills. over, it is necessary to heat the Russian stove in winter regularly, avoiding interruptions and cooling the body of the stove. With periodic heating in a cooled stove, condensate forms, the brick absorbs it and cracks during the next cooling and freezing.
In the summer, the Russian oven is drowned regularly or periodically, for cooking, while using the “summer” mode, directing the smoke with the valve straight to the pipe. The body of the stove does not heat up.
Advantages of the Russian stove:
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- multifunctional, solves a whole range of tasks;
- with regular heating in the cold season, it creates an even microclimate in the house without temperature fluctuations;
- decorates the house and gives it a peculiar national flavor.
- Greater weight and dimensions. the construction of a massive foundation is required;
- a large amount of masonry materials, high construction costs;
- complex maintenance, the need for regular cleaning of the channels and the chimney with your own hands;
- not too high efficiency.
The Dutch stove is a fairly popular design of heating stoves, sometimes they are equipped with a hob. This is a channel stove. for efficient heating of the walls, it is equipped with flue channels with a vertical location. Passing along them, smoke is completely roasted and gives heat brick.
The design feature of the Dutch stove is a small footprint, which makes it popular with summer residents and owners of small houses. At the same time, the stove can be made of any height, so it can successfully heat two floors. The shape of the stove also varies from square and rectangular to round, but in any case, its height is much greater than its width, so the Dutch stove is often compared to a column.
- saving on space and materials. it needs two to three times less bricks than a Russian stove, and the price of its construction is much lower, it can be easily folded with your own hands;
- the Dutch woman has rather thin walls and warms up quickly;
- it can be heated after long breaks, immediately bringing it to full power;
- with modest dimensions, the “Dutch” can heat a house with an area of \u200b\u200bup to 70 square meters.
However, it also has disadvantages:
- Its efficiency is low. about 40%;
- the optimal mode of operation is smoldering, which is why the “Dutch” is sometimes called a long-burning brick oven;
- to ensure good traction, cleaning the furnace from ash and soot should be regular;
- if you do not close the view after the firebox, the stove cools down instantly, so it requires close attention and firebox skill.
The Swedish stove has a more versatile design compared to the Dutch one, while its efficiency is much higher with compact dimensions. The standard Swede is multifunctional, it has a hob, an oven, and two niches for drying shoes and clothes, and some masters complement the Swede with a fireplace or a stove bench.
This is a channel-type stove, in which the principle of a bell-type stove is also implemented. the afterburning of flue gases under the roof of the furnace. The stove effectively heats two adjacent rooms, usually a kitchen and a room, the “Swede” will not cope with heating a large house.
- fast warming up;
- efficient fuel combustion;
- the special design of the channels allows you to warm up the lower part of the furnace, so that the floors become warm;
- the ability to cook various dishes;
- in the niches located on top it is convenient to dry vegetables, fruits and berries, as well as heat up food;
- they can also dry clothes, shoes;
- if desired, you can build a heat exchanger into the oven and heat water for household needs.
- To masonry strongly heated elements, it is necessary to use chamoten brick, which increases its borne
- to avoid heat loss through the bottom of the stove, you need to make good thermal insulation;
- it is not recommended to completely cool the stove in the cold season, since the ignition of a cold, damp stove leads to the gradual destruction of the masonry.
The principle of their operation is as follows: the smoke from the furnace rises up, under the hood, where it lingers until it cools, after which it descends along the walls, heating them. The stove can have a whole cascade of hoods in which the smoke gradually cools, so the efficiency of such stoves is very high.
Advantages of bell-type furnaces:
- simple design and a small amount of material required for masonry, low price;
- the stove can be heated from a cold state, while it quickly heats all adjacent rooms;
- if you forget to close the damper, the stove will not cool down like a “Dutch”, thanks to the so-called gas view, which prevents back draft;
- if desired, it can be equipped with a hob and a heat exchanger;
- even a novice stove-maker can fold such an oven with his own hands.
This stove is practically devoid of shortcomings, therefore it is very popular with summer residents and owners of country houses.
Bell-type stoves are an excellent choice for summer cottages, country houses, cottages. Thanks to any possible number of cascades, it can heat several rooms at once, including those on two floors.
Russian oven: drawings of brick ovens
Russian brick ovensFor laying the furnace, the following materials will be required:
- solid red brick. 1610 pieces;
- a view for a valve measuring 0.3×0.3 meters. 2 pieces;
- dry clay mortar in dissolved form;
- samovar 14×14 centimeters. 1 piece;
We do heating stoves for a brick house ourselvesTo work, you will need the following tools:
- trowel. for laying and leveling the solution;
- pickaxe. a multifunctional hammer with a blade located perpendicular to the axis of the handle. At its other end is a square windshield;
- bubble level for masonry and hydraulic for the first row;
- rule. serves to align the bricks of each row;
- plumb lines. one of them must be permanently attached to the axis of the chimney (overlap), and with the help of the second, the verticality of the corners is checked;
- brush. needed for grouting;
- cord. it is pulled over each row of masonry.
Drawings of brick ovens for any type of house are as follows:
- cooking chamber. For masonry, a 3/4 ground corner brick with locks is used.
- Under. From the back there is a slope, for the purpose of which the space is covered with sand, on which the brick is laid.
- Covering the bottom. The structure is covered with bricks along bars, corners or sheet blanks.
- Vault with lock. In some cases, a central lock is used, in others, the last two symmetrical bricks.
- Rows to the lower vault. The laying of a brick oven is carried out in the usual way, later on a vault template assembled from chipboard or springs cut from wood is installed on top of it.
- Wells. Represent a bandaged rows in which the hole leaves.
- Underfurnace. Bricks are stacked on the foundation, hollow stones are not allowed.
- Code VK. For convenience, bricks are shred to a wedge-shaped form.
- Channel overlapping over sovannik. Is solid, only whole stones are used.
- Holes are reduced above the shestak. Brick is cut in accordance with the drawing.
- Wall alignment. At the same time, the overtube is reduced, the channel of the samovar is laid.
- Installation of a samovar. The structure is closed with a separate cover.
- Installing Vyushki. To build in the structure, two rows are laid.
- Chimney. The height of the pipe from the bottom to the top must be at least 5 meters. The upper rows form a visor that prevents precipitation from entering the chimney.
Advantages and disadvantages
Stone stove has the following advantages:
- High efficiency. Depending on the design, it is 0.7-0.85. This figure is achieved thanks to the well-thought-out design of the structure.
- High heat resistance. Stones, unlike metal, do not burn through for decades. No deformation from exposure to high temperatures and contact with water.
- Appearance. The patriarchy of the atmosphere created by the hearth contributes to the creation of comfort and coziness.
- Versatility. The heating and cooking oven with a heat exchanger can be used for cooking, drying things, heating the entire building.
- The possibility of placing large heat exchangers, both in the furnace and in the chimney channels for heating water from heated gases.
- Big weight. As a rule, you need to make a separate foundation.
- Solid dimensions. The object takes up quite a lot of space.
- Large investment in construction. The laying of the hearth takes a long time.
If you make a water circuit for the oven with your own hands, this will bring significant savings on heating.
Tools and materials
Let’s see how to fold a brick oven with your own hands. As an example, let’s take a small brick Swedish stove that runs on wood. We will discuss the simple order of the heating and cooking stove, but nothing prevents you from considering more complex options. By persevering and observing all the requirements, you can create an excellent heating unit that pleases with warmth and appearance.
Before you start laying out bricks, using our step-by-step instructions, you need to prepare the following tool:
It is impossible to correct skewed corners, so it is better to take care of their correctness in advance.
- Hammer for laying bricks. this can be a rubber mallet or a light wooden mallet (it is better to find a rubber mallet. it will help maintain the integrity of the brick);
- Hammers and picks for hewing bricks and removing hardened pieces of cement mortar;
- A set of trowels. for laying the mortar (some completely manage with one trowel, without any sets);
- Building level, answers, twine (fishing line). all this will make the rows more even;
- Rule and guides. to create an even foundation screed;
- Pliers (they are pliers). for working with wire;
- Toolkit for mixing the solution is a container, a sieve for sifting sand, a shovel, an additional container.
We pay special attention to materials. We will need:
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- A set of parts for laying a wood-burning brick oven. these are the doors of the firebox, blower and windows for cleaning stoves, hobs and grates, chimney valves;
- Strong steel wire. with its help we will fasten the doors;
- Chamotte brick. it is used for laying the firebox;
- Red hardened brick. from it we will add the rest of the wood-burning brick oven;
- Corners 50×50 mm made of metal. will be needed to support some rows;
- Waterproofing material. will separate the furnace from the foundation.
After that, you need to find a suitable project and start laying a brick oven on firewood with your own hands.