What substrates to choose for electric underfloor heating
In the best way under the electric underfloor heating are fit sufficiently thin types of substrates, such as pressed cork, Foil plastic, TMrgo, Polifom, Thermodom and other foamed polymeric materials.
By the way, foamed polymers can withstand significant loads, so they are increasingly in demand in construction works. For the production of a thicker substrate foam polystyrene is used.
This subfloor can withstand even a concrete screed, since it is designed for heavy loads. Polystyrene foam is actively used when laying underfloor heating with electric heating elements, whether flexible hoses or film floors.
In cases where it is necessary to pre-levelling the substrate for a warm floor, OSB and particle board, as well as plywood can be used as a substrate.
It is worth noting that for underfloor heating of the electric type is not desirable to lay substrates equipped with a layer of reflective aluminum. If during operation the layer of aluminum insulation will be broken, there will be a leakage of current, which can lead to negative consequences. The reflective layer must be on a vacuum-coated polyethylene film.
Two initial factors should determine which brand of subfloor to choose:
- Type of finish flooring. The stronger the substrate is chosen, the heavier the coating will be. Under laminate, you can put a simple foam underlayment (read: “Why you need an underlayment for laminate and which is better”), and under tiles. an underlayment made of materials with special strength.
- Room type. It does not matter if the room is new, or if the repair is repeated in an old room. Depending on what type of electrical floor will be selected, and what features have the load-bearing floor, the thickness of all layers of the heating system with the floor covering can vary from 10-15 mm to 3-4 cm.
All these nuances must be taken into account when calculating the height of door and window openings. During renovation, it is advisable to consider all parameters in order to reduce the height of the underfloor heating as much as possible. This will not encounter problems with the height of the door to the opening, and so on.
If something goes wrong, the door leaf and vertical trim will need to be cut at the bottom of the trim by several centimeters. The worst outcome. you will need to raise the lintel of the doorway or redo the entire underfloor heating system.
Under the linoleum should lay only substrates on a rigid basis, and the screed layer should be low. The principle of installation of the substrate depends on the materials used, as well as the recommendations offered by the manufacturer.
What kind of carpet pad is needed for underfloor heating?
A lot of people already appreciate underfloor heating. it’s not only very convenient to use, but also provides an incredible comfort in use. Of course, if they are properly installed in compliance with all technological norms.
We decided to tell you why underfloor heating is needed, what function it performs and how to lay it correctly.
The peculiarities of the combination of laminate with underfloor heating are of great importance. A few years ago, builders did not recommend laying laminate on underfloor heating. Today, manufacturers have developed a wide range of materials that allows to take into account any requirements of the consumer. The right subfloor under the laminate flooring can compensate for the disadvantages of this neighborhood and extend the life of the flooring.
The carpet pad on the warm water floor must perform a variety of tasks:
- Waterproofing. At its core, laminate is a compressed wood fiber coated with a layer of plastic and resin. No matter how carefully the owners did not protect their floors from contact with water, they can not control moisture seeping through the porous concrete slabs. Prolonged exposure to water vapor will cause the panels to swell and warp. In addition, the substrate, laid between the laminate and heating elements, should save a beautiful floor in the event of a possible accident.
- Floor leveling. The right underlayment for laminate flooring will eliminate surface irregularities. Even surface. a guarantee of quality installation and long life of the locks (tongue and groove joints of the panels).
- Thermal conductivity. Any additional layer installed over the heating elements will inevitably reduce their efficiency. Therefore, the subfloor under the laminate should not be too thick and dense, if we are talking about underfloor heating.
- Soundproofing. Wooden floors as well as concrete floors have a resonant effect which means that every step, squeak, and minor noise is amplified. Some grades of laminate flooring have sound-insulating layers built in, but this noticeably increases the price of the flooring and is not always suitable for underfloor heating. Due to its plasticity, the substrate fills in small roughness and eliminates unnecessary noise.
- Eco-friendliness. If heated excessively, laminate flooring can release harmful chemicals into the air, such as phenol. A carpet pad that is chosen correctly distributes heat evenly and does not overheat the plastic that makes up the panels.
- resistant to alkalis. It is known that many detergents for the floor have in their composition aggressive components. The substrate material must be able to withstand accidental contact with household chemicals.
Among other things, a good substrate under the laminate “do not like” rodents and insects. They will not want to make nests and eat near such material (do not forget that laminate, which consists of natural wood fibers, can attract many types of bugs, it is not resistant to the teeth of mice).
Thus, a seemingly insignificant detail, in fact, is of great importance for the organization of an optimal microclimate and comfort in the house.
Laying the subfloor under the laminate on the warm floor
Before installation, it is necessary to carefully prepare the substrate for the work. The subfloor must be free of dirt, dust, various stains, even and solid. All defects should be eliminated in advance: cracks and potholes should be filled with repair mortars, the unevenness should be smoothed out. The floor heating system should be turned off 5-7 days before the beginning of the work, in winter. 3 days. Temperature and humidity must meet the requirements specified in the instructions for installing laminate flooring.
The number of substrate usually corresponds to the area of the room, but in the reserve can buy 2-3% in case there is a marriage or defect. The recommended direction of laying. across the laminate, but it is not crucial. 0.2 mm thick waterproofing foil is a welcome element in the floor pie.
Mats or sheets of the carpet pad are laid butt to butt, in the presence of a self-adhesive edge. are glued to the substrate according to the instructions (supplied with each pack). Fix the edges with adhesive tape. Immediately after laying the subfloor, the laminate flooring can be installed.
How to choose a substrate under the floor heating? The choice of material, laying technology
Comfortable underfloor heating has become much more affordable, and more people are thinking about buying them at the moment, the floor heating has not become a luxury. Now it is only a comfortable accessory available to almost everyone. The system has a number of modifications, which differ among themselves device heater. That said, a certain device variation is only suitable for certain types of flooring. Specifically on the system depends on your upcoming choice of material for the final floor and its next installation. When installing underfloor heating, not only take care of all the mechanisms. The most important element is the substrate.
- Vapor barrier;
- Resistant to deformations;
- Highly reflective;
- Environmental safety;
- The highest thermal and water insulation properties;
- Immunity to temperature fluctuations;
- Easy installation.
On what aspects is selected the substrate for the underfloor heating:
- The material must be strong, otherwise it will not withstand the highest load;
- The substrate should not absorb water;
- Must be ordinary and comfortable to use;
- Low cost.
The main function of the substrate is to keep your home warm
An insulation layer in the case of a water underfloor heating system
Cardinally different in that instead of electricity is used here coolant. water. Usually used in private homes, where the boiler is responsible for heating water. Because it is a question of water, you need to pay particularly close attention to the tightness of all connections and quality of installation. As for the substrate, in addition to reflection, it has high requirements in terms of waterproofing.
The thickness of a similar substrate should be the largest, and the perfect solution is the introduction of polystyrene foam. Also, cork floors are very popular, because this material is environmentally friendly and does not emit any unsafe substances when heated. The very heating of cork, by the way, is also fully normal. Also an option is extruded polypropylene, which features its own safety, cheap price and a width of up to 10 cm.
Does it need a substrate for electric underfloor heating?
Underfloor heating is a modern and economical way to heat living spaces. In the region of Moscow and Moscow region, as well as in other regions, they are gaining in popularity. This type of heating is an excellent alternative to radiator heating and has several advantages over it:
- uniformity of heat distribution. the heat is distributed from the bottom upwards, which makes people in the room feel comfortable;
- fuel economy. On average, underfloor heating is 20-40% more economical due to rational heat distribution (radiators mostly “warm the ceiling”);
- Most of the energy is transmitted by thermal radiation, which has a beneficial effect on the human body;
- No wiring of external heat pipes, which spoil the appearance of the room;
- can be used in all rooms, including those where radiators are not provided by the project, such as bathrooms and toilets.
In general, the design of underfloor heating is a “layer cake”, where between the floor underlayment and the flooring above are located: waterproofing, thermal insulation, a heating element (water pipe, electric cable, heating grid), concrete screed.
Underfloor heating is divided by the type of heating into:
The main requirement for the floor, as for any other heating system. the most effective heat transfer. In the case of underfloor heating, it is not possible to obtain the desired result without the use of an auxiliary material.
Underfloor heating with Isospan A membranes ensures that the thermal energy released by the system is used efficiently. In the absence of this element, the heat released will spread not only into the room, but also into the screed.
Although concrete has a fairly low thermal conductivity, it significantly reduces the efficiency of a warm floor, as it “steals” about 30% of the allocated heat energy. In the case of a shielding substrate, all the heat energy will go to warm the air in the room, not the heating of the screed.
There are three basic variations of the underfloor heating system. infrared, cable and water flooring, each of which requires substrates with different properties, but both in the first and second case, the material must have the following characteristics:
- Vapor barrier properties. it is necessary that condensation does not form on the heating elements due to temperature differences;
- Shielding effect. low thermal conductivity alone is not enough, because sooner or later the material will warm up anyway, and will transfer heat in an unnecessary direction. It is important that the substrate acts as a barrier, reflecting thermal radiation inside the room;
- Sound insulation with reflective thermal insulation materials. the presence of noise-canceling effect in the system is a very nice bonus for all people living in apartment buildings;
- A wide temperature range and resistance to deformation. the temperature near the heating element of the floor heating can reach 50-70 degrees. Thermal resistance is a mandatory requirement for the material used, as it is not uncommon for poor-quality subfloors to fuse in the first weeks after installation;
- Eco-friendliness. it is important that when heated, the material from which the substrate is made, does not emit vapors harmful to the human body;
- Minimal cost and ease of installation.
1.1 Peculiarities of subfloors for cable flooring
Although the system with cable heating is the most labor-intensive in the arrangement of the project, but at the output guarantees a highly efficient and durable heating system.
The installation of cable floor heating begins with the filling of the screed, on top of which the thermal insulation is laid. Then the installation of a waterproofing carpet pad under the insulation, which will protect the material from the cement milk, and the second layer of screed is poured.
Further, the direct installation of a heated floor with thermal insulation by IZOROK begins. A substrate is installed under the underfloor heating, and then the installation tapes, in which the heating cable is placed, are fastened on top. On termination of installation of cable the final cement-sand coupler is poured.
For such floor heating systems, foil-lined substrates are used, which contribute to an even transfer of heat energy from the heating cable over the entire floor surface.
A foil carpet pad for underfloor heating ensures that the whole system is heated evenly and that surplus thermal energy is constantly dissipated from the heating cable itself, which has a positive impact on its service life.
Installing a cable floor on a substrate of foil
1.2 Peculiarities of substrates under the infrared underfloor heating
The design of an infrared floor heating with IZOSPAN vapour barrier differs significantly from a standard cable floor, and therefore requires a completely different substrate.
How to Insulate a floor to prevent Cold from below with EcoTec FloorFoam
Using foil-lined materials in the arrangement of infrared floor heating systems is not allowed. This is due to the fact that in contact with the foil, made of aluminum, which is a good conductor of electricity, the infrared film, to which the voltage is applied, if the contacts are damaged, can short circuit.
As a substrate under the infrared floor heating is used two-layer materials, which have a metallized polymer surface (most often used metallized lavsan) on the one hand, and the base of foamed polyethylene or polystyrene on the other.
1.3 Features of substrates under water systems
Requirements for the substrate under the water flooring are identical to the cable system. ensuring maximum heat transfer, and uniform distribution of heat over the entire surface of the floor covering.
Since installation of water heat is a rather time-consuming process, since elastic pipes must be fixed in a fixed position, manufacturers produce special substrates with multiple columns-cells, in which the pipes are fixed.
Such columns allow you to install the system much faster than expanded clay for floor insulation, since there is no need to mechanically fix the heating pipes. they are simply installed in the cells, whose pitch is 5 centimeters, which allows you to give the contour any configuration.
Lining under the water system is usually made from a fairly dense polystyrene foam, with a thickness of 30-40 mm and a density of 40 kg / m ³.
Styrofoam itself has a small thermal conductivity (about 40 W / mk), which provides a reduction of heat transfer between the concrete screed and the heat transfer medium. To give the material a shielding effect, the substrate is covered with a metallized lavsan film, similar to that used for infrared systems.
Immediately it is worth noting that the laying of each type of substrate should be carried out according to individual technology, selected depending on the type of underfloor heating and insulation material. There is a general list of technological work, consistently performed in all cases:
- Remove the old flooring or screed the new floor. If you plan to install a warm floor in a new house, you must first perform all the rough work, screed the floor in any convenient way, wait for its final drying and only then proceed to the next stage. If there is a need to dismantle the old floor, the coating is completely removed with tools, all debris is collected and transported to a dump, and the work surface is thoroughly cleaned.
- The concrete base must be carefully examined for flaws such as chips and cracks. They must be eliminated with a cement mix.
- Make sure that the floors are perfectly flat, with no imperfections. In the case of strong height differences it is strongly recommended to fill the entire space of the floor with self-levelling compound, the layer should not exceed 3 cm.
- In order to level out temperature fluctuations, special tape is attached around the perimeter of the lower part of the walls.
- Along the entire perimeter of the framework is placed a strong polyethylene film, with the necessary overlap on the walls.
- On top of an even layer is laid underlayment. Make sure that all parts are stacked butt to butt. Lay the substrate should be so that the density of the material was not less than 150 g / sq. м.
- Subsequently, the other parts of the floor heating system are assembled one after the other.
Despite the apparent difficulty, laying both the substrate itself and the entire underfloor heating system is not so difficult. This work requires patience and care, and with the proper skills does not take much time.
Substrate for infrared film heated floors
If the arrangement of infrared underfloor heating is planned, then the main parameters determining their proper functioning are:
The substrate under the foil floor heating is made of the following materials and taking into account the following recommendations.
- Magnesite boards or sheets Wood-fibre board. Before they are laid directly on the previously arranged screed, foil aluminum is laid. And the carpet pad is laid on top of it. Foil carpet pad for underfloor heating can be used.
- If metallized plastic film is used as a substrate, it should be laid with the reflective side up (toward the film floor with IR resistors). The result is a slim, very flexible, quite flexible and environmentally friendly solution.
- The insulation is laid over the entire area, on which it is planned to put the further infrared membrane floor. Carpet pad cloths are laid butt to butt, and the resulting seams are glued with metallized adhesive tape. Which creates the necessary vapor barrier and gives the substrate the necessary waterproofing qualities.