Before you begin the rowing, it is necessary to prepare the base and knead the bonding mortar.
Laying the foundation
If the floor of the room already has a coating, it will need to be removed. From the rough floor of the furnace is separated by a sand cushion.
Picture 7 Scheme of the classic version of the foundation for the brick oven.
To calculate the size of the pit should be added to the size of each side of the furnace device 200-250 mm, a depth of at least 500 mm. In the prepared pit of the required size, sand is initially poured. 150 mm, then broken bricks (stones or a solid plate can be used). The next step will be pouring a thick sand-cement mortar (proportion 3:1).
During this period, while the coating has not become hard, the surface is strengthened with rod reinforcement. a mesh is used, with a mesh size of 1010 cm. At the joints, the bars are set in an upright position and fastened with a wire.
Followed by a layer of gravel crushed stone. 100 mm. For the foundation formwork, each side will be wrapped with waterproofing material. Now the concrete is poured on the rubble and the surface is leveled. Still wet layer is powdered with dry cement. Complete drying will come after a month. However, there is a minimum curing period. 7 days.
At the next level the foundation is covered with sand. 30-50 mm and similarly to the previous one. insulated, for example, with roofing felt.
Mixing the mortar with clay
Preparation of the mortar is performed a few days before laying, more specifically, 2-3 days. For mixing we take lumpy clay. It is poured with water, and the rest is poured out. We leave for a few hours for complete absorption of water by the clay and then add clean sand, observing the proportion of 2:1. On the basis of 1/8 of the total volume, measure the water and pour it into the thoroughly mixed mixture.
It is interesting to know! Let’s check how well the mixture is made: using the trowel we move the received consistency to the side. If there is a torn track, the mix is too thick; if it floats quickly, you need to add more clay; if it is smooth and has good shape retention, it is the ideal proportion.
Pour the Dutch oven
How to fold with your own hands the simplest version of the stove with three vertical channels, we told earlier in a separate step-by-step instruction. This publication presents a variant of a heat-intensive Dutch chimney with a horizontal duct system, shown in the drawing.
- Heat output. 2.5 kW;
- average heated area. 20 m²;
- The sizes in the plan. 51 x 89 cm
- planned height. 35 rows of bricks or 2.45 m (can be increased if necessary);
- In order to save heat, an inner cavity filled with sand is provided.
Traditional Dutch oven is suitable for heating a small private house, cottage or sauna. It is placed in a comfortable place of the heated room with a 10 cm indent from the foundation of the building and away from the outer walls. Since the design does not provide for a stove, the stove is built in a living room. living room or bedroom.
Preparation of building materials
A favorable feature in terms of economy is the possibility of using second-grade materials, including second-hand bricks. For the preparation of mortar will go common ravine clay and carefully sifted silica sand.
To build the model shown in the drawing will require building materials and stove casting in this amount:
- 400 standard size solid ceramic bricks 25 x 12 x 6.5 cm.;
- the main furnace door 250 x 205 mm;
- ash-pan door 13 x 14 cm;
- Inspection door for cleaning in the size of 130 x 140 mm. 2 items;
- A ready-made grate (grates) 25 x 25 cm;
- chimney flap 130 x 130 cm. 2 items;
- Pre-flame steel sheet 0.5 x 0.7 m;
- roofing felt;
- felt or asbestos cardboard.
Recomendation. Since the combustion chamber is built without using refractory stones, you should choose high quality, well-fired red bricks for its masonry.
We make a rubble foundation
Since the weight of the structure is about 1.5 tons, it is necessary to install the foundation, not connected with the foundation of the existing building. In order to save materials, it is made of rubble. from broken stone, bricks and large debris. The upper plane of the foundation is derived at the level of the clear floor of the room.
The foundation is laid according to the step-by-step instructions:
- With at least 100 mm distance from the foundation of the building, dig a 61 x 100 cm foundation pit, which is 100 mm larger than the dimensions of the stove. The depth depends on the location of the dense layer of soil and is at least half a meter.
- Create a cushion of sand and tamp it down. The thickness of the layer is 10 cm.
- Fill the hole with rubble, seal it thoroughly and grout the gaps between the stones with liquid cement mortar (budget option: clay with water).
- When the mortar hardens, make the waterproofing of the underground part, laying the upper plane with a double folded roofing felt, as directed in the scheme.
- Lay retaining walls of any bricks up to the level of the clear floor, using cement-sand mortar. Backfill the interior cavity with natural rubble as described in the previous steps.
Smooth the surface of the foundation with cement mortar, wait for curing and place a sheet of basalt cardboard or clay soaked felt on top. The base of the stove is ready.
It is important to make the masonry mortar properly to ensure the strength of the structure. Soak the clay with water for 24 hours, pass it through a fine sieve, and mix it with the sand in the ratio of 1:1, then correct the consistency. A mortar that is too greasy later on threatens to crack, while a lean mortar will not gain the required strength. In the first case, sand is added, in the second. clay.
Note. Check the consistency and the fatness of the mortar by rolling in the hand. “Sausage” should not crack (a sign of high fatness) or stick to the palms (lean mixture).
Next, lay out the Dutch oven in accordance with the rows:
- Make the first row solid, and starting from the second, form the ash chamber and the inner cavity.
- Having finished the 3rd row, fix the ash door in the masonry, fill the cavity on the 4th row with sand. The overlap is done in the fifth row.
- Install the grate in the 6th row by cutting off the edge of the front brick where the firebox hatch is fixed. Tiers 8-13 form the walls of the firebox.
- Rows 14 to 16 gradually overlap the combustion chamber, leaving a chimney opening in the back.
- Starting from the 18th floor form a channel system with overlaps in rows 23-25 and 32-34.
- Place shutters on rows 9 and 33.
Advice. After forming each slab it is recommended to grout joints with grouting mortar.
If you have some experience in building stoves, you can take on a round Dutch-style stove built inside a metal casing Ø 1 m. Heater masonry shown below (rows 1-3 are performed as a single line).
The chimney for the exhaust of combustion products is laid half a brick thick, starting from the 36th tier, which is the ceiling. In masonry chimney is permitted to use a mortar with the addition of cement M400.
To meet the requirements of fire safety, the passage through the wooden ceiling and the roof must be made pipe with a thicker wall. In the ceiling is formed so-called section, and on the roof. the otter. The purpose of reinforcing the walls is to provide a standard distance of 38 cm between the gas duct and the roof structures made of combustible materials, as shown in the diagram.After completing the construction, allow 5-10 days for the complete drying of the solution, then carefully inspect all seams for cracks. If you find any, carefully fill them with the clay mortar, first widening them with the trowel. In the end, check the draft and perform the primary heating, as advised by the master on
Since the development of the Dutch stove, a large number of modifications have appeared. It is constantly being improved and certain changes are made. That is why almost all heating structures are called Hollandki. Note that the name of this oven was invented in Russia.
Russian Dutch stoves
Many masters began to change the appearance of the usual Russian stove and began to call them Dutch designs, but technically they have nothing in common. Such stoves began to be built after Peter I pointed out that all heating structures should be built on the basis of Dutch devices. Domestic craftsmen have guessed to combine both versions, and to develop a completely new device. Then the new version returned back to Europe and became widely used among the population.
Unlike the Dutch version, the Swedish version is equipped with a cooking chamber and a stove. Therefore, they can be used not only for heating the room but also for cooking. If necessary, such a design can be installed in an oven, a heat generator or a hot water box. To accurately lay out all the rows of the Swedish stove will help.
Round Dutch oven
This option was also developed in Russia, although it is of German origin. The scheme of the device is quite simple: a smoke circuit and three ducts. The stove works by smoldering wooden fuel. It is built on an iron casing, which reduces its cost. At the same time the heating device has a good heat emission. But a lot of heat escapes through the chimney. Despite the low cost, the device is a fire hazard, soot appears on the casing, requires regular maintenance, which is not so easy to give.
This version of the design is a small stove, which is designed for heating a small area, up to 20m2. We use coal or wood as fuel. Prepared scheme and poryadovka allow you to make a design of appropriate size. Small dimensions are achieved by folding into a small ring of smoke tubes. Construction dimensions are 520X520 millimeters.
Materials and quantities
|Ash door||1 each|
|Cleaning doors||2 pieces|
|Fireclay brick||50-100 pcs|
|Ordinary red bricks||200-500 pcs|
|Fly grate||1 item|
|Sand||Half a cube|
All doors are available in specialized stores or in the warehouse of building materials in your city. Many people order designer doors from local craftsmen to make their stove a design element of the room.
If you decide to install a metal cover on the structure and at the same time make it yourself, in addition to the above materials you will need several sheets of galvanized or roofing metal. Their number depends on the height of the stove and its width, usually enough 2-3 sheets to make an iron case for a Holland stove height of 3 meters.
Dutch oven, advantages and disadvantages
The hollandka is in many ways superior to the usual Russian stove. it has a high heating rate, small size, convenience, economy and ergonomics.
In this regard, the Dutch oven is ideal for both country houses and baths. Such a design can be laid out with your own hands, but provided that you follow the instructions for production.
There are many kinds of stoves. I would like to note some of them as common.
Column furnaces were close to the Soviet citizens, because they were mainly used in low-rise buildings. By the way, such devices worked with wood, coal and gas. And they behaved perfectly well with any of these fuels.
However, Soviet engineers had a peculiar approach to increasing the heat output. They suggested to build a metal casing around the brick walls of the stove, which heated up and gave more heat energy.
If you draw a parallel between the Dutch oven and a classic Russian stove, the first is much faster able to heat the room, as it has a smaller thickness of the walls. Like any other design, it has its pros and cons.
What is attractive about the device of the Dutch stove:
- Simplicity of masonry as compared to pyrolysis or bell heaters.
- Grub can be laid out of ceramic bricks of any quality, as long as it is full-bodied.
- Thanks to the repeating poryadovka stove rises to a necessary height and is able to heat simultaneously 2-3 floors.
- The structure is characterized by small dimensions in terms of.
- The chamber burns wood of any quality, and a network of ducts quickly heats the brute and the heated room.
It is erected with his own hands Dutch oven quickly and easily.
It has relatively few disadvantages. Of these, the following features deserve special attention:
- Non-thick walls call to comply with all fire safety standards, the surface around the design must be lined with heat-resistant and heat-resistant materials.
- Under the Dutch oven you must build a separate foundation and chimney, and the first is often done simultaneously with the foundation of the house, but not relinked with it.
- Fuel is not consumed very economically.
- If the grate is left open after firing, the stove cools down immediately. The channel chimney system works like a chimney sweep.
- When using high ash fuel, a lot of soot accumulates, which increases the probability of ignition and the risk of a fire.
However, there are many positive aspects that offset all of the above disadvantages:
Dutch Dutch doors come in various sizes. But even the smallest Dutch chimney stove with an area of 0.25 square. м. Can easily heat a room.
The high top part of the furnace only increases the efficiency of the Dutchman and allows you to build the furnace on two floors. Less common are three- and four-storey hollanders.
The design is relatively small, so it can be installed even in the smallest of spaces.
Minimal amount of building materials.
For laying of the Dutch oven you need half as much bricks as for the construction of a conventional Russian oven. For example, a large hollandka will require 700 bricks, and a small Russian stove will require about 1,400 bricks.
In addition, the small size and stable configuration of the stove allows you to use as a resource hollow brick or already used. A good refractory brick is put only in the furnace area.
Advantages of the Dutch stove
In the process of construction you can use any brick, including second-hand.
Dutch oven with a stove: rowing with their own hands
Such a practical device as a Hollandka stove, the masonry of which Russian masters mastered more than 200 years ago, is in great demand. The design is characterized by high reliability, cost-effectiveness and performance.
It looks quite simple, which leads most owners to the idea to create a unit with their own hands. But before you take on the realization of conceived, it is worth to study all the fine details of the process, then the work will be done much faster and of higher quality.
I want to draw attention to such moments as, the advantages and disadvantages of design, the principle of action, to describe in detail the step-by-step instructions on how to create a Dutch oven with your own hands.
Ultramodern heating device has long ceased to be a gimmick in the modern interior, and therefore, learning about the development of new models, consumers are tirelessly increasing their demands for their ergonomics and functionality. One such construction, which fully met the requirements of consumers, was the Dutch oven, which is widely used in the construction of both unpretentious country houses and stylish cottages. It is one of those unique structures, which simultaneously coexist and simplicity of design, and the enormous efficiency of. Unlike the classic Russian stove, the Dutch oven has a much more modest size and smaller wall thickness, which contributes to its faster heating. Taking this into account, the heating furnace Hollandka becomes the most popular choice of owners of stylish and modern cottages, who want not only to manage their budget economically, but also equip their homes in accordance with all the rules of ergonomics. Due to the fact that the services of professionals associated with masonry stoves hollandanka, cost a lot of money, we strongly recommend you to equip the furnace hollandka your own hands, using our recommendations.
Dutch oven: a historical overview
The Dutch stove has been known since the time of Columbus, but despite this, it did not gain true worldwide popularity until the 16th century, when the Netherlands became an independent state. Since the 18th century furnace arrangement became a rule, and the 19th century was marked by the mass acceptance of the Dutch furnace, after which this design became dominant in the choice of heating devices. In the Middle Ages and Modern Age, the Dutch-style stove began to be associated with refined tiles featuring paintings by great artists. Since then, the Dutch-style stove and the tile have been inseparable concepts. Nowadays, this method of decoration has lost its significance, but despite this, it is still a historical companion of the Dutch oven, the photo of which can be seen below.
Design features of the Dutch oven. Differences from traditional stoves
Despite the fact that you can build a Dutch oven of any shape, whether oval, round or square, the classic version is characterized by a rectangular form. If you have decided to allow for the variability of stove shapes, you should know that the shape of the firebox no matter what remains constant, rectangular. The main difference between the Dutch oven and other varieties is the absence of a grate. The design, for the manufacture of which full-body ceramic bricks are used, is characterized by the presence of the following constituent elements:
- The firebox, also called furnace, is a furnace niche, which is located at the base at the bottom of the furnace and is designed for laying coal or firewood;
- The chimney, of which the exhaust pipe is a part, forms a six-channel system consisting of three ascending and three descending channels, which are located one under the other, thus ensuring the consecutive passage of gases through the system. But, unlike traditional furnaces, the Hollandki design does not imply the presence of the grate.
- Due to the lack of an ash-pan and grate, the wood in this stove is characterized by low intensity of burning, since the oxygen fed to the fuel only through the door of the firebox is not enough to maintain active combustion.
- Due to the fact that this stove is characterized by small size, it successfully fits into the interior of any room, and, what is important, allows you to arrange a system of both gas and water heating.
- Door for cleaning the furnace pipes from soot.
- In addition to the traditional oven design there are exceptions: Dutch ovens equipped with a fireplace, a hob or an oven.
- Experts recommend to build walls with the thickness of one brick for small structures and two bricks for more massive structures. Only this thickness can provide the maximum heat output at minimum fuel consumption, typical of the furnace hollandanka.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Dutch oven
What you need to know about the advantages of a Dutch oven?
- Variability in design. Except for gross technical errors, variations in design will not have the slightest effect on the strength and efficiency of the device;
- High functionality: The Dutch oven, originally designed for heating, can be equipped with a cooking surface and used for cooking;
- The small dimensions of the Dutch oven can not exceed 0.5 x 0.5 m;
- Less material consumption compared to traditional ovens, consumption of material not exceeding 650 bricks for a solid design, while the minimum consumption of bricks for a Russian oven 1300 bricks, and heat a small Russian oven will be much worse;
- Low weight due to the low consumption of materials allows you to install the Dutch oven on the upper floors of country cottages, as the maximum load of the furnace does not exceed the maximum allowable load for standard interfloor ceilings;
- Unpretentiousness towards materials is a characteristic feature of the Dutchman stove. It is due to the rational design of the furnace and a small thickness of its walls, which makes it resistant to deformation under the influence of temperature. In this connection, you can choose even the hollow bricks as the basic material for the Dutch oven, which does not affect its performance characteristics. The only thing you can not save on is the material for the furnace, it must necessarily be made of refractory bricks;
- Due to the fact that the Dutch oven heats up quickly and cools down slowly, you can forget about the overspending of fuel if you use it regularly;
- High heat output: unlike a Russian stove, which can barely heat a room with an area of 45 sq. ft. A chimney, a Dutch chimney easily heats 60-70 square meters, which can be heated in a space heating system. meters.
And now a few words about the disadvantages:
- The chimney, which is based on a system of ducts, acts as a siphon through which the heat is blown. This contributes to the rapid cooling of the oven and the associated, low efficiency;
- It is not recommended to heat the hollandka using fuels that burn instantaneously, such as brushwood, dry reeds and straw. During the process of its combustion, due to the channel system of the chimney, the oven does not have time to warm up properly. In this regard, the quality operation of the furnace is possible only when the fuel is in the smoldering mode;
- If low-grade high-ash fuel is used to fire the Dutch oven, it may result in excessive soot deposited in the chimney, which may cause a fire.
- It is very important not to overheat the Dutch oven, because by overheating it begins to emit carbon monoxide.
Note! The optimal temperature of the hollandaise is 50-60 degrees. This temperature is easy to determine by touch: if, touching the furnace with the palm of your hand, you can still tolerate, but when the back of your hand touches the stove, you feel a strong burning sensation, then the temperature does not exceed 60 degrees.
From the mechanical point of view, the principle of operation of the furnace is very simple. The gases heated in the combustion chamber, first of all, go to the chimney, and more precisely to the first lifting channel. Passing through it, and reaching the top, characterized by a sufficiently low temperature, pass through the second opening, without ceasing to give the heat energy to the furnace walls. Having reached the furnace, they again undergo heating, after which they rise again, but already on the third channel. The same principle underlies the flow of heat through the fourth and fifth channels. Only after that the air reaches the fuel tank through the sixth shaft and leaves through the chimney.
Furnace arrangement of the Dutch oven: tips to help the beginner?
A beginner, who for the first time decided to try his forces in the construction industry, experts strongly recommend pre-building a stove in accordance with all the recommendations presented, but without the use of concrete mortar. Carrying out this experiment, which has received the prosaic name of dry masonry, will save time on the development of the drawing of the furnace and at the same time prevent the most common mistakes. To ensure that the quality of masonry ready-made furnace does not let you down, you must clearly follow the instructions and drawings proposed by professionals. This will avoid the main mistake of beginners low quality masonry, due to the widespread construction by eye.
Dutch Oven Basics for Beginners
Dutch oven with their own hands: materials and tools
Before engaging in the planning of the system, provide in advance a place for its placement. It would be ideal if you do this at the stage of construction of the house. The next step is to select quality materials and tools. For a typical Dutch oven, designed to heat a room with an area of 40 square meters. The following materials and tools are needed:
- 200 refractory bricks;
- River sand, preferably sieved;
- Wire that is easy to bend;
- Gravel crushed stone and blue clay, necessary for more stable adhesion of the mortar;
- Ruberoid, necessary for waterproofing;
- A door for arrangement of the firebox, preferably factory-made;
- Dry masonry glue for stoves with fire-resistant properties.
- From the tools you will need a level, trowel, shovel, tape measure and other tools from the standard set.
Making a Dutch oven: step-by-step instructions
In order to prevent the occurrence of gross technical errors in the process of installation, before proceeding to the installation activities, experts recommend making a scheme of the future design, in accordance with which you will subsequently carry out the installation of construction.
Dutch oven scheme
In the first stage, you need to dig a hole, with the following parameters: the width of the sides of 50 cm, the depth of 75-80 cm. Backfill the bottom of the pit with river sand with a layer height of 10 cm and a 10 cm layer of gravel. Place reinforcing mesh on top so it covers the rest of the pit area. Then prepare a concrete mortar based on a cement to sand ratio of 3:1. Prepare a formwork of suitable size of plywood or wood and fill the area with concrete mortar, then leave it for 7 days until it dries completely.
After the final drying of the foundation, put on it two equal pieces of roofing felt, and on top evenly apply the clay, which is at least two days soaked in water, according to the following ratio: for 8 liters of clay you must take about 1 kg (900 g to be exact) of heat resistant adhesive and 2 buckets of sand. Stir the mixture evenly before applying it to the surface, and after making sure that the consistency of the mixture resembles a thick sour cream, proceed to apply it.
Arrangement of the Dutch baking stove
If objectively you do not consider yourself a professional in the construction sphere, experienced craftsmen recommend starting with dry masonry, that is, masonry furnace hollandka without using, which will help avoid possible mistakes. Scheme of the Dutch oven is very variable and depends on the size of the construction. In our article we will describe the order of works on the construction of a small-sized stove.
The first row of brickwork is placed on the sand moistened with water, which is spread over the entire area of the concrete foundation. It is important to know that before pouring the mortar, it is necessary to check the level and according to the measurement it must be strictly vertical;
The first and second rows of the furnace masonry must be continuous. At the same time, you can not forget about the rules of binding between the bricks;
At the level of the third row, it is necessary to start the formation of the ash chamber, which is a space for the oven, which connects to the horizontal duct. Once you have begun forming the ash chamber, you can begin to install the door for the ash chamber;
Masonry on the 4th row is based on increasing the total mass of the furnace, and at this stage begins installing the ash door, which necessitates laying parts of the metal wire, which will be needed to secure the door. At this stage it is necessary to mention the peculiarities of masonry: if during the masonry of the first three rows the bricks were laid flat, then the masonry of the fourth row implies their installation on the rib up to the upper edge of the door;
At the level of the fifth row, the ash drawer is installed, and in the process of laying the sixth row again return to the build-up of the massif of the Dutch oven;
When you have finished laying the ash door, at the level of the 7th row it is overlapped and the bricks are laid flat again. Repeat the same on the 8th row;
If your scheme of furnace arrangement implies the presence of the cooking surface, it is necessary to make room for it, which can be achieved by moving the 9th and 10th level a little backward. After that, arrange the furnace hole. After laying the 9th row, on top of his place non-combustible material (asbestos cord), on it and install the hob. The 10th row is associated with the formation of the base for the future chimney. In the furnace, characterized by lightness and low weight, install a metal chimney, as a brick chimney will significantly weigh down the construction.
In the process of masonry 11-th row, install the damper, which is characterized by the presence of asbestos seals. At this level, masonry is performed in a quarter, since this is where the junction of the chimney and stove is located;
At the level of the 14th row the furnace is overlapped at the top, and in the back wall to leave a hole designed to throw out the excess smoke. The same is done at the level of the 15th row;
The 16th and 17th rows are associated with the formation of the cleaning door, which can be replaced by ordinary bricks, laid without concrete mortar;
When laying the 18th row, it is important to remember that it represents the base of the furnace chimney. After its formation, install the stove pipe, which can be purchased or made from bricks of a similar type.
Tips and tricks of experienced craftsmen
- For a room that is 40 sq. meters, you can calculate the necessary size of the furnace. At the height of the furnace, which is 210 mm, the optimal size is considered 780 x 580 mm.
- To improve the quality of masonry, before using bricks, experts advise each of them to immerse for a few minutes in water, which helps to remove air bubbles from them. Thanks to the implementation of this procedure, the brick will not absorb the mortar, which will increase the quality of masonry;
- Since the door frames installed in the process of masonry are exposed to temperature, they should be wrapped with asbestos cord or coated with varnish that has fire-resistant properties before installing them in a hollandaise stove;
- The most frequent problem requiring repair measures of a previously used stove is brick splintering at the ends and corners of the stove. To prevent this, in the process of masonry produce finishing with specialized plates of different shapes;
- Another important indicator of the quality and long life of the Dutch oven, according to experienced stove-setters, is the distance between the chimney and the roof slabs. Ideally, it should not be less than 15 cm.
On many websites you can find a large number of articles that naively claim that the arrangement of Dutch oven does not present any difficulties and even the most inexperienced builder can cope with it. But this is far from it, and if you do not feel confident in your skills, we recommend that you have patience and diligence, as well as carefully study the recommendations presented in the manuals, which are written by more experienced craftsmen. In our article, experienced craftsmen share with you the experience of building a stove Hollandka, and if you follow them clearly, you can equip the stove Holland with his own hands, avoiding serious errors that can often turn into tragedy. In this regard, we recommend that you do not engage in amateurism and experiments in the stove business, and clearly follow the advice of the masters.