Calculation by area
A simple table for calculating the capacity of a radiator to heat a room of a certain area.
How to calculate the number of radiators per square meter of heated area? To begin with, you need to familiarize yourself with the basic parameters taken into account in the calculations, which include:
On the basis of such data, the thermal capacity needed to heat a room with an area of 10 sq.m. per square meter is calculated. m, is 1000 W. The received power is divided by the heat output of one section. as a result we get the required number of sections (or select a suitable steel panel or tubular radiator).
For the most southern and cold northern regions apply additional coefficients, both increasing and decreasing. we will talk about them further.
Getting ready for winter. calculating the number of radiator sections.
There are three methods, which are based on general principles:
Radiator selection / sizing.
- standard value of one section power can vary from 120 to 220 W, that is why the average value is taken
- To correct for errors in calculations when buying a radiator you must allow for 20% reserve
Now let’s turn directly to the methods themselves.
Method one. standard
Based on building regulations, for quality heating of one square meter you need 100 watts of radiator power. Let’s start to calculate.
Let’s say the area of the room is 30 sq. m. Let’s assume the power of one section is 180 watt, then 30100/180 = 16.6. Let’s round up and get a value of 17 sections of radiator for a room of 30 square meters.
However, if the room is corner, multiply this value by 1.2. In that case, the number of required heater sections will be 20
The second method is approximate
This method differs from the previous one in that it is based not only on the area of the room, but also on its height. Note that this method works only for medium and high power devices.
At low power (50 watts and less) such calculations will be ineffective because of too big an error.
So if we assume that the average height of a room is 2.5 meters (standard ceiling height in most homes), then one section of a standard radiator heats an area of 1.8 square meters.
The calculation of the sections for a room of 30 “squares” would be as follows: 30/1,8=16. Let’s round up again and get that 17 radiator sections are needed for heating this room.
The third method. volumetric
As the name suggests, the calculations in this method are based on the volume of the room.
Assuming conditionally that for heating 5 cubic meters of the room we need 1 section of 200 watts. With a length of 6 m, a width of 5, and a height of 2.5 m, the formula for calculation would be as follows: (652,5)/5 =15. Consequently, for a room with these parameters you need 15 sections of heating radiator capacity of 200 watts each.
If the radiator is planned to be located in a deep open niche, the number of sections should be increased by 5%.
If the radiator is planned to be completely covered by a panel, the increase should be made by 15%. Otherwise it will be impossible to achieve optimal heat transfer.
Read the article and find out how to build a scheme of water heating in a private home.
Here. all about how to choose a heating radiator
The necessary data for the calculation
The best solution is to contact an experienced professional. Professionals can calculate the number of bimetallic radiators for heating quite accurately and efficiently. This calculation will help you determine how many sections you will need not only for one room, but for the entire room, and for any type of facility.
All professionals consider the following data to calculate the number of radiators:
- What material the building was built of;
- What is the thickness of the walls in the rooms;
- type of windows that have been installed in the room
- what climatic conditions the building is located in;
- Whether there is any heating in the room above the room where radiators are placed;
- How many “cold” walls in the room;
- What is the area of the calculated room;
- what is the height of the walls.
All these data allow you to make the most accurate calculation for the installation of bimetallic radiators.
Calculation of heating radiators is made in accordance with the heat loss of a particular room, as well as depending on the area of this room. It would seem that there is nothing complicated about creating a proven heating scheme with loops of pipes and the carrier circulating through them, but the correct thermal calculations are based on the requirements of SNiP. Such calculations are performed by specialists, and the procedure itself is considered extremely complex. However, with an admissible simplification, you can perform the procedures yourself. In addition to the area of the heated room, the calculations take into account some of the nuances.
Not for nothing to calculate the radiators, experts use a variety of methods. Their main feature. accounting for the maximum heat loss of the room. Then the right amount of heaters that compensate for these losses is calculated.
It is clear that the simpler the method used, the more accurate the final results will be. In addition, for non-standard rooms specialists apply special coefficients.
Under non-standard conditions of a particular room is taken the exit to the balcony, large windows, the location of the room, for example, if it is a corner. Professional calculations include a number of formulas, which are difficult to appeal to a non-professional in this field.
Specialists in their projects often use special devices. For example, a thermal imaging camera can accurately determine the actual heat loss. Based on the data obtained on the device, calculate the number of radiators, which accurately compensate for the losses.
This method of calculation will show the coldest points of the apartment, the places where the heat will escape the most. Such points often arise due to construction defects, such as those made by workers, or because of poor-quality construction materials.
The results of the calculations carried out are closely related to the existing types of heating radiators. To get the best result in the calculations it is necessary to know the parameters of the devices planned for use.
The modern range includes such types of radiators:
To carry out the calculations, we need such parameters of the devices as the power and shape of the radiator, the material of manufacture. The simplest scheme involves placing radiators under each window available in the room. So the calculated number of radiators is usually equal to the number of window openings.
However, before buying the necessary equipment, it is necessary to determine its capacity. This parameter is often associated with the size of the device, as well as with the material of manufacture of batteries. With these data in the calculations need to deal in detail.
How to consider the effective power
When determining the parameters of a heating system or its individual circuit, do not neglect one of the most important parameters, namely the heat output. Often it happens that the calculations are performed correctly, and the boiler heats well, but with heat in the house somehow does not add up. One of the reasons for the reduction of thermal efficiency may be the temperature of the coolant. The thing is that most manufacturers specify a capacity value for the head of 60 ° C, which takes place in high-temperature systems with a coolant temperature of 80-90 ° C. In practice it often turns out that the temperature in heating circuits is within 40-70 °С, which means that the temperature head value does not rise above 30-50 °С. For this reason, the heat dissipation values obtained in the previous sections should be multiplied by the real head and then the resulting number should be divided by the value indicated by the manufacturer in the data sheet. Of course, the resulting figure obtained as a result of these calculations will be lower than that obtained by the above formulas.
It remains to calculate the real temperature head. This can be found in tables on the web, or it can be calculated yourself using the formula ΔT = ½ x (Tn Tc). Tvn). There Tn. initial temperature of water at the inlet to the radiator, Tc. final temperature of water at the outlet of the radiator, Tvn. ambient temperature. If we substitute TN = 90 ° C (high-temperature heating system, which was mentioned above), Tc = 70 ° C and Tvn = 20 ° C (room temperature) in this formula, it is easy to understand why the manufacturer focuses on this value of the thermal head. Substituting these numbers into the formula for ΔT, we just get the “standard” value of 60 ° C.
Taking into account not the passport, but the real capacity of the thermal equipment, you can calculate the parameters of the system with an admissible error. All that is left to do is to make an allowance of 10-15% in case of abnormally low temperatures and provide for the design of the heating system the possibility of manual or automatic adjustment. In the first case, experts recommend putting ball valves on the bypass and the branch of the coolant to the radiator, and in the second case. install thermostatic heads on the radiators. They allow you to set the most comfortable temperature in each room without letting the heat out onto the street.
The main advantage and reason for the popularity of these radiators is that they are as strong as steel pipes. Thanks to the aluminum coating, they have:
- Excellent heat transfer coefficient;
- Long term of use;
- Stylish appearance;
- Light weight;
- The presence of nipples to connect the sections, allows you to easily build up to reduce the length of the batteries, according to thermal calculations.
Calculation of aluminum radiator sections per square meter
As a rule, manufacturers have calculated in advance the power standards of aluminum batteries, which depend on such parameters as the height of the ceiling and the area of the room. So it is believed that in order to heat 1 m2 of room with a ceiling height of 3 m will require a thermal capacity of 100 W.
These figures are approximate, since the calculation of aluminum radiators for heating area in this case does not provide possible heat loss in the room or higher or lower ceilings. These are generally accepted building standards, which are indicated in the data sheet of their products manufacturers.
- Of great importance is the parameter of the thermal capacity of one radiator fin. For an aluminum heater, it is 180-190 W.
- The temperature of the medium must also be taken into account. You can find this out from the district heating company, if the heating is centralized, or you can measure it yourself in an autonomous system. For aluminum batteries, the figure is 100-130 degrees. Dividing the temperature by the heat output of the radiator, it turns out that to heat 1 m2 you need 0.55 sections.
- If the ceiling heights have “outgrown” the classic standards, a special coefficient must be applied:
- if the ceiling is 3 m, the parameters are multiplied by 1.05;
- at a height of 3.5 m it is 1.1;
- if the figure is 4 m. it is 1.15;
- wall height 4.5 m. the coefficient is 1.2.
- You can use the table provided by the manufacturers of their products.
How many sections are needed for the aluminum radiator?
Calculation of the number of sections of the aluminum radiator is made according to the form, suitable for any type of heater:
- S. area of the room where you want to install the battery;
- k is a coefficient of adjustment of 100 W/m2 depending on the height of the ceiling;
- P. power of one radiator section.
When calculating the number of sections of aluminum heating radiators, it turns out that in a 20 m2 room with a ceiling height of 2 m.7 m for an aluminum radiator with a power of one section 0.138 kW will require 14 sections.
In this example, the coefficient does not apply, since the ceiling height is less than 3 m. But even such sections of aluminum heating radiators will not be correct, because the possible heat loss of the room is not taken into account. Keep in mind that depending on how many windows there are in the room, whether it is a corner room and whether there is a balcony: all these things indicate the number of sources of heat loss.
Doing the calculation of aluminum radiators according to the area of the room, in the formula should take into account the percentage of heat loss, depending on where they will be installed:
- If they are fixed under the window sill, the loss will be up to 4%;
- installation in a niche instantly increases this figure to 7%;
- if an aluminum radiator for beauty cover one side with a screen, the losses will be up to 7-8%;
- Completely covered with a screen, it will lose up to 25%, which makes it in principle unprofitable.
These are not all the indicators that should be taken into account when installing aluminum batteries.
The above methodology is quite approximate, not taking into account a lot of factors that affect the result of the calculation. The nameplate capacity of a single element of aluminum or bimetallic battery is quite relative. After all, its value can be obtained under certain conditions, where the temperature of heating fins bimetal equal to 100 0 C, the ceiling height to 3 meters, the room is no cold (exterior) walls and the presence of only one window.
It seemed quite simple to calculate the bimetallic radiators for heating apartments with ceilings no higher than 2.7 m. Enough to the normative heat output (136 W) of a segment of bimetal multiplied by the number of square meters of each room. The result is divided by the thermal capacity of one segment, the value of which is declared by the manufacturer. But here is the danger of a rough calculation.
Based only on the data sheet and not taking into account the characteristics of the room, you can incorrectly calculate how many sections of the radiator per 1 m 2. This can lead to insufficient heating of the room or on the contrary will force to remove excess heat by forced ventilation of the room. For an accurate calculation, you need to consider all the nuances of room conditions.
How many radiator sections you need per square meter of heated area
When it becomes necessary to calculate the approximate number of radiator segments, many factors are added together. You can not ignore that any calculation will be approximate, containing an error. There are several methods to find out how many radiator sections you need for 1 m2 of floor area. But you can not ignore the volume of rooms with different ceiling heights and other factors that determine the efficiency of heating.
The bigger the room, the more sections should be in the radiator