Installation of heating radiators with your own hands: in a house or apartment, strapping patterns
To make an independent installation of heating radiators, you must first understand the features of the installation of various types of batteries (aluminum, steel, bimetallic, etc.D.), to determine what tools and materials we need, to study the rules of the hitch, strapping schemes and other aspects of this at first glance simple business.
How to take into account all the nuances of the installation of heating batteries of certain models and prevent mistakes. We will talk about all this below all this.
Installation of heating batteries is a very responsible task for developers. Its successful solution depends on many factors, starting on the type of heating system, the heat engineering calculation of the building of the building and ending with the correct choice of the type of batteries and the schemes for their connection.
There are many options for installing heating radiators.
It depends on the type of eyeliner’s eyeliner with the coolant, strapping heating devices and even on the material of the enclosing structures.
The modern heat engineering market in Russia is filled with an extensive assortment of heating radiators of various classes, structures, sizes. In each case, whether it is replacing old batteries or connecting heating radiators in a new building, you need to mount the devices strictly following the instructions developed on the basis of regulatory documentation. Snip. With certain skills, to correctly mount the heating system of an apartment or private house, the owner of the housing itself will be able to do it with your own hands.
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Norms and restrictions
Warm water floor. Low.Temperature heating system. According to existing standards, the maximum temperature level of the coolant should be 55 degrees. During operation, the standard heating usually varies in the range from 35 to 45, and the floor heats up to 26. 31. The norms for different rooms are different:
The liquid circulates the pump through the floor of the floor. In addition, it allows you to adjust the level of heating in the room. You need to pick it up pushing away from the speed of water. The maximum that is permissible for hydropolis is 0.6 m/s.
The difference between heating water on the supply and output should not be 10 degrees in the chains.
Battery location rules and connection diagrams
To carry out installation work on the installation of radiators, SNiP requirements are fulfilled, which regulate the procedure for wall accommodation and distance to the batteries.
Basic requirements of SNiP to install radiators:
- The smallest gap from the battery to the wall is 50 mm. If you place the radiator closer, then the distribution of heat will flow unevenly, while if you install away from it, it will protrude into the room and prevent the normal movement of residents.
- Radiators are installed on specialized stands on the floor, while the flight to the zero mark should be at least. 100 mm. Otherwise, the efficiency efficiency will significantly decrease. At the same time, the user will not be able to qualitatively serve such a device and clean the floor from dust under it. High installation will violate the principle of natural convective heating of the room when the air at the bottom of the room will be cold, and the top overheat with large heat losses per street.
- The optimal distance to the window window sill is 8-12 mm. Close placement can melt the plastic windowsill and deform the window frame.
- Installation of heating radiators involves their strapping with a pipeline system.
There are three main connection methods:
Note! The connection option in multi.Storey buildings is determined by the heating project of such an object, any changes without adjusting the project are not allowed. In houses with an individual heat supply source, the project also adheres to, since in this case it is important that the system can reliably overcome all hydraulic resistances in the network.
Binding with one.Sided connection
This scheme is most popular in the communal residential sector. It can be executed two- or one-pipe. Most of these schemes work in old houses in which cast.Iron batteries with steel pipelines are installed. Installation is performed on drives. For installation, a double set of ball valves, tees and drives, equivalent diameter with external threads will be required.
With a single.Pipe system, it is necessary to install a bypass (bypass) line, which makes it possible to turn off the battery, without stopping the heating process in other rooms, without draining the system fluid. The locking reinforcement on the bypass is not installed due to not blocking the coolant on the riser.
All connecting parts are compacted by a fum tone or hemp fiber, packaging mass is applied on top. When installing the valve, the winding is not abused, since this leads to cracks and leaks. When using a two.Pipe circuit, the bypass is not installed, the taps are also not required. The supply coolant is connected to the upper pipe, and the reverse.
Most masters consider this installation option the most ideal, suitable for almost all heating systems. The only thing where it is not applicable is a single.Pipe system with a horizontal lower location, it is also called “Leningradka”.
With a diagonal scheme, the heating water in the heater moves diagonally. From top to bottom. Therefore, it is evenly distributed inside the heater, lowering on top naturally. In the device itself, the speed of the coolant is small, so the heat transfer in the heated room is high, with minimal losses not exceeding 2%.
Cinema with a saddle connection
Often the developer resorts to a hidden supply of pipelines or lower wiring. Such a system looks neat, but has its own arrangement rules with a saddle connection. With a 2-pipe system, a bypass and locking taps are installed on both sides to turn off the battery if necessary.
The classic installation of heating batteries involves at the first stage the implementation of the wiring scheme, it is better when it is done by a specialized organization as part of a heating project for a residential building. It will indicate not only the installation procedure, the slopes of the diameters of the connecting elements, but also the type of batteries, their number capable of ensuring high.Quality heating of the room at the lowest outdoor temperatures.
Ways to connect the radiator to the pipeline:
- Upper. The coolant enters the heater from above and goes in a similar way. This type of installation is distinguished by uneven heating, since the coolant does not warm the bottom of the device, so the use of this method in the houses is irrational.
- Lower. The coolant enters and comes out at the bottom, differs small heat losses (up to 15 %). The advantage of this method is the ability to mount the pipe under the floor.
- One.Sided or lateral. The supply and reverse pipes are connected to one side of the convector (from above and below). In this case, good circulation is provided, which reduces heat loss. This type of installation is not suitable for convectors with a large number of sections (more than 15), since in this case the distant part will warm up poorly.
- Cross (diagonal). The supply and reverse pipes are connected from different side sides of the radiator diagonally (above and below). Advantages: minimum heat loss (up to 2%) and the ability to connect the device with a large number of sections.
The method of connecting radiators to the pipeline affects the quality of the premises heating.
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Heating batteries with lateral connection
When connecting heating batteries in a private house on the side, there are several more options: in this case, the supply and outlet pipelines can be connected to two pipe, so there will be four options.
With this type of connection of heating radiators in a private house, as a diagonal one, you can achieve maximum heating efficiency. This connection is considered a reference, it is used by manufacturers of their tests for testing. Other types of connection are not so effective. This happens due to the fact that in the case of a diagonal connection, the coolant is supplied to the upper entrance on one side, after which, bypassing the entire radiator, it comes out from the other side from below.
When using a unilateral connection of heating radiators in a private house, pipelines are cut into them on one side. The input pipe passes from above, and the return is located below. Sometimes this connection option is more convenient, for example, if the riser passes the side of the battery. This can be often found in apartments.
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The supply of the coolant from below is not used so often, because this approach is less convenient in terms of the location of the pipes. This option of connecting the radiator has almost the same efficiency. Slightly lower, only 2 %. But this is possible only if there are no more than 10 sections within radiators. If the battery has a large length, then its distant land will not be able to warm up well or at all will be cold. Panel radiators are deprived of this drawback, since they are equipped with tubes, extensors of the flow. They deliver the coolant to the center of the radiator. Such devices can be installed in radiators from aluminum or bimetall to increase heat transfer.
By determining how best to connect the heating radiators, you can use the lower or saddle connection. Among the entire list of connections, saddle is considered the most ineffective. Losses can reach 12-14 %. However, it is the most inconspicuous, since in this case the pipes are laid on the floor or under it, so it can rightfully be called the most aesthetic. So that heat loss does not affect the temperature in the room, you can purchase radiators more powerful.
This connection method is undesirable to use in systems with natural circulation of the coolant. But if the pump is installed, then this scheme will function pretty good. Sometimes reach the same effectiveness as when using a side connection. This is explained by the fact that during the movement of the coolant with a certain speed, vortex flows appear, the entire surface warms up, improving the heat transfer. Such phenomena have not yet been fully studied, so it is not possible to determine how the coolant will behave in certain cases.
The principle of operation of a single.Pipe heating system is a circular fluid circulation along one highway. Heated coolant leaves the boiler and passes sequentially through each connected convector.
Each subsequent water enters the previous one, as it passes, part of the heat is lost as a result of cooling. The farther the battery is from the boiler, the lower its temperature. When one element fails, the work of the entire chain is violated.
To avoid this, it is recommended to mount the wiring with the bypass (bypass).
Installation is carried out in a horizontal or vertical way, in the second case, the boiler is optimally installed at the lower level to ensure natural circulation of the liquid.
Advantages of a single.Pipe scheme: ease of installation, low expenditure costs, aesthetics (with horizontal wiring, the pipe can be hidden, for example, mounted under the floor).
- The relationship of the chain elements. The failure of one radiator leads to a violation of the entire system;
- High heat loss;
- The inability to control the heating of individual elements of the system;
- Limited heating area (up to 150 m2).
However, for a one.Story house with a small area, it is more rational to choose this type of heating.
Any connection method can be used in a single and two-pipe heating system. In the first type of installation of batteries, it occurs so that they form a single chain along which the water flows from top to bottom. It is unprofitable to make such a heating system in a private house, since the first radiators will heat up very well, and the rest are bad. This is due to admission to the latest devices of chilled coolant.
The two.Pipe system is more profitable, since hot water comes from one riser, and the chilled flowing into another. Such wiring pipes of the heating network is performed in all private houses, because it allows you to maintain a constant set heat regime and makes it possible to control this mode.
How batteries are connected?
Scheme of radiator supply
- Lower. 2 pipes of progressive and reverse nature are brought to the radiator. As the name of the method is understood, the pipes are placed at the bottom (each pipe is suitable from different sides). The peculiarity of the system lies in the absence of direct warming up of the battery. It is carried out using convection. Due to the difference in liquid temperature at the top of the battery (cold) and below (hot), they replace each other.
- Side. A return pipe will join the radiator from below, and on top. Feed. At the same time, they are located on one side of the device, which causes a large heat transfer by the carrier only to the first section of the battery, and the rest accounts for less than 40% of heat. This type of attachment of pipes requires a perfectly correct location of the batteries (they should be slightly inclined) to ensure correctly work.
- Diagonal. The feed pipe is connected from one side at the top, and the return pipeline on the other below. In this case, convection plays on hand and provides a full heating of the battery.
Special models of radiators
In apartment buildings, heating wiring is often made in such a way that only a lateral or lower connection of heating batteries is possible. You can make changes to the project only in agreement with the commission, and this is a long and tiring business. But many manufacturers of radiator batteries provide for such a problem and produce systems with diagonal wiring of collectors:
- For the lateral connection of radiators, an extension cord is used. This is a bracket with an installed tube, which is screwed into the lower or upper entrance. Due to the bracket, the fence or release of the coolant occurs in the far corner of the radiator and the flow passes the entire battery diagonally.
- For the lower connection of radiators, insulation of the extreme section is most often used. To do this, at the factory at the junction of the lower collector of the last and the penultimate section, a plug is installed. She overlaps the straight coolant, turning the rest of the battery into a radiator with a diagonal connection.
Such modernization can be made with already installed batteries. Crane with extension cords can easily be found in plumbing stores. An experienced plumber will be needed for installation, since it will be necessary to disconnect the radiators from the network, disassemble the approaching or removing pipeline and seal assembly.
There are similar solutions to block the extreme section. Most often it is a clutch twisting at the output point and having a remote plug. She blocks the hole between the penultimate and the last section of the radiator and redirects the main stream of the coolant along the bypass path.
And finally, several useful tips:
- Do not make too long branches, especially on other floors. The coolant must necessarily reach the radiator;
- When placing a collector in the room, do not put it in the end. The length of the branches to the radiators should be approximately the same. Otherwise, the temperature of the coolant in different radiators may vary markedly;
- When installing pipes on the floor or to the ceiling, lead them to the radiators entirely, without breaking the compounds. Otherwise, if once such a pipe will flow, it will be a very big problem.
As you can see, there is nothing complicated in the circuits for connecting radiators of typical heating systems. To understand them in order to design and lay their system, any person who has a common secondary education can. Of course, when creating heating systems, it is necessary to take into account many nuances, but this is a topic for a separate conversation.
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