Advantages of furnace heating
alt=”Advantages of heating with wood” width=”460″ height=”345″ /
In autumn there’s still a lot of work to do in the garden, and the daylight hours are short, so we want to do more, to have time to do everything. By evening fatigue was building up. And that’s why it’s very pleasant to wash in the bathhouse, spend the evening and night in the warmth.
With the onset of cold weather, the craving for the evening warmth of the dwelling grows. But what to do if the heating has not yet been turned on in the city apartment, and a night in the cottage requires the operation of an electric heater and a lot of electricity consumption. In addition, the widespread use of such a method of heating alienates people from contact with nature. the living fire.
My wife and I once returned to the cottage after a 4-day absence. The house greeted us with cold and dampness. We stoke the mini-fireplace, then the oven. In four hours the house is filled with warmth.
The summer of 2019 also turned out to be cold, so burned all the passing stock of dry firewood, but nothing, found a simple means of kindling with new firewood. The more so because heating with wood is also useful as a mineral fertilizer. wood ash.
|minerals in wood ash, %|
|Type of firewood||P2O5||К2О||CaO||Source|
|birch||7,1||13,8||36,3||Development of a summer cottage / Yu.М. Andreev, Moscow: EXMO-Press: Lik Press, 2001. pp.114|
Two years ago wood ash was available in the stores in 1 liter packs at a price of 65. At the same time the name of the wood from which it was derived, the package did not indicate. And the composition of ash is important for plants.
How to make a firebox and what is a smoke chamber
The size of the furnace in width is limited by the thickness of the walls (half a brick) and is 270 mm. The height we take about 200 mm is 3 rows. It provides a good warming of the stove. The larger volume of the firebox is intended for heating when a large load of wood is needed, or a water loop device.
At the height of the grate in the rear wall of the heater, an unbonded bouncing brick (half a brick on the edge) must be placed to facilitate access to the interior of the smoke chamber (picking out soot).
Front part of the firebox is covered with a corner, and behind, to install the pipe with a metal strip at a distance of 120.130 mm, so that the pipe with a diameter of 150 mm rested on the brick of the back wall and this embedded.
In the depth of the fuel chamber, at a distance of 500 mm from the front edge, a smoke threshold (tooth, gooseneck), made of two bricks (again flat), not bound to the walls, is placed. Its function is to increase draught by narrowing the passageway for hot gases. It divides the well, consisting of 3 rows of bricks, into a furnace and a smoke chamber (hilo), on top of which the chimney is mounted. over, in our case, the small burner above the tooth is very well heated.
You see the brick lying flat, this is the chimney sill
A stove with a hob
In the simplest version of such a design has small dimensions (width 2, and depth of 3 bricks. 78×53 cm). Nevertheless, even in such a limited space it is possible to place a single-burner stove.
The work gets better, when you have everything you need at hand.
So buy the following materials and accessories beforehand:
- Red solid bricks. 107 pcs;
- The bottom door. 1 pc;
- The fire grate. 1 pc;
- One-burner cast-iron stove. 1 pc;
- Firebox door. 1 pc;
- The slider for the pipe. 1 pc.
You don’t need a fireproof brick for a wood-burning stove. Buying it is a waste of money. But red should be chosen carefully, discarding cracked and uneven.
Masonry mixture is made by mixing four parts of clay with one part of water and adding to them eight parts of sifted sand. Normal consistency can be defined simply: the mortar slips easily from the master, without leaving any drips. It should not leak out of the joints during laying.
Building our First Brick Cooking Stove and Making Calzone Pizza
The mortar volume is determined according to the number of bricks. At the optimum joint thickness (3-5 mm) one bucket is enough for 50 pieces.
After preparing the masonry mix, you can start laying the base. Its width is 10 cm more than the width of the furnace. Select the height of the foundation so that the bottom of the first row of bricks was at floor level.
If the basement is deep enough (50-60 cm), then it is not necessary to dig a hole for the foundation. Enough to make the formwork on the ground size of 76 x (5110cm). At its bottom lay two layers of roofing felt to protect against moisture. After laying concrete, it is given a week to gain strength, and then proceed to masonry.
The dimensions of the stove we are considering with a 3 x 1.5 brick hob (76×39 cm).
Tip of the master: every new layer of bricks lay without mortar (dry). After adjusting the size of the bricks, you can start laying.
The first row is placed on a layer of clay mortar (4-5 mm). After leveling the base, lay the second, leaving room for the ash door.
Before installing the door, you need to screw a soft wire to it and put its ends in the joints for better fixation.
To compensate for the thermal expansion of the metal, a gap is left between the door and the brick. Before placing it, the frame is wrapped with wet asbestos cord.
The third row is laid by overlapping the joints of the second row. At this level we install the grate in the firebox.
The fourth row is placed on the rib, observing the overlapping of the joints, and forms the walls of the furnace chamber. Behind it will be the first and only flue (see section A-A in the diagram). To clean its bottom in the back wall without mortar put the so-called bouncing brick, periodically taken out to remove ash. Inside the chimney make two stands of pieces of brick to support the internal partition.
The stones of the fifth row are placed flat, leaving enough space for the firebox hatch. In the back part of the stove we can see the walls of the two smoke channels. Their surface during work should be thoroughly cleaned with a wet rag from the clay that protrudes from the joints. It is an important prerequisite for a good draught.
Useful tip! While referring to the drawings, don’t forget to look at the two cross-sections of the stove. They will help you better imagine its construction and not to make a mistake when laying bricks.
Raising to the eighth row in the masonry, shutting the furnace door, laying in the joints of the wire, fixing its frame. At the same level in the back of the fuel chamber put a brick with a beveled end. the chimney tooth. It improves the heat output, preventing the quick release of flue gases into the chimney.
Having completed the ninth row, asbestos cord is laid on the mortar along this row. It is necessary for sealing the joints between the cast-iron plate and the brick. On the tenth row the firebox is covered with the hob.
On the eleventh row a smoke valve is installed in the chimney. It is also sealed along the contour with asbestos cord soaked in clay.
12th and 13th row formation of the chimney walls. After they are completed, a lightweight sheet metal chimney is placed on the stove, leading out onto the roof.
Types of mini stoves
Steel stoves. This type of mini stoves is not expensive and easy to install, but the service life of such a model will not last long.
Cast iron stoves. The cost of such furnaces is quite high, but it can serve very long, but only if it will not be exposed to sudden changes in temperature.
Brick mini-oven. This type of stove is the most popular today, and for good reason:
- Keeps heat for a long time
- An opportunity to make it yourself
- Affordable fuel
- Possibility to make a stove or oven
- High reliability
Due to the availability of the material and ease of performance, even a novice stove-maker can make a mini-furnace with his own hands.
Most often, a mini stove for villas is made with or without a stove for cooking. It is the second option that we will consider in detail.
Selection of bricks, sand, mortar
To make the stove last for a long time, you need to choose all the materials wisely. Bricks come in three kinds:
- Ceramic can be used to build a stove.
- Silicate at all are not suitable in this case, even double M150.
- Refractory bricks are ideal, but they often cover only the furnace and fireplaces, varieties: fireclay, refractory bricks, etc.
Tip: when choosing a brick for the stove, you should completely avoid its hollow types.
The mortar is made of clay. Red clay is suitable if the furnace is laid with red bricks, when using fireclay requires special fireclay. Some bakers still make their own mortar from river sand with a grain of 11.5 mm, clay (in a ratio of 2.5:1) and water in the old way. It is desirable to use angular quarry sand without extraneous inclusions and so-called fat clay. However, it is easier and more reliable to buy a ready-made furnace mixture in the store, preparing it according to the instructions.
As for the accessories, you need to buy grates, firebox and firebox doors, sootblowers, shutters or dampers.
Elements of the stove
All furnaces, without exception, consist of a foundation, an array that includes a furnace and duct, and, of course, the chimney.
How to build a smokeless wood stove with an oven on another level
This element of the stove plays an important role, because it is the foundation on which the stove will stand. In some cases, it is made separately from the main base of the house. And this is not by accident, after all:
- The furnace is quite heavy and during subsidence the ground will be much lower than under the main building.
- Since the temperature in the oven is unstable, and the oven itself can give the movement, and it is very dangerous for the walls of the house.
- Separate base for the furnace structure gives an acceptable indentation between the furnace and the main structure. This reduces the risk of fire.
Among other things, in this position it will be easier to maintain it: to make repairs, remodel or make adjustments if necessary.
The base for the furnace is made of bricks or butte, which are placed on a mortar, either lime or cement.
Using clay mortar for the foundation is strictly prohibited. After all, under the influence of high temperatures, the clay begins to break down.
When building the base, it is worth considering that it should be five to seven centimeters larger than the base of the stove itself on all sides. To deepen into the ground you can take about 75 centimeters.
If the building is one-story, then fifty is enough, but if it is a two-story structure, then it is worth deepening the base by one meter.
Among the elements that are included in the array of stoves can be distinguished. the body, furnace and chimney. Red bricks are used for masonry, and refractory bricks are used for cladding. The body itself and the chimney are laid on a mortar of refractory clay and sand. The cladding uses a composition of fireclay powder with clay, refractory. The thickness of the joints should be minimal, no more than five millimeters.
The most important thing that you should not forget about the fact that it is necessary to observe the boundary of the joints, otherwise over time there will be destruction of the walls of the furnace.
Soak the red bricks in water for about fifteen minutes before starting to build the stove. This is done so that the bricks do not pull water from the masonry mixture, refractory bricks are simply wiped with a damp cloth.
A number of conditions must be met during the work:
- Checking the horizon and diagonals to prevent slope. If it is present, you will have to redo the upper rows and eliminate the error.
- Filling the joints with mortar. The furnace must be periodically cleaned of excess mortar with a rag.
- The chimney will need to be wiped with a wet brush to remove dirt and mortar.
As advised by experienced stove builders, before laying a row, it should be duplicated in a separate place without the use of mortar. Such a move allows to see all possible mistakes and to eliminate them in time. Among other things, it is much easier and faster to cut bricks in this way.
This element of the furnace is built only of red bricks. At the attic level, cement and lime mortar is used as a bonding element, and the outer only on the cement mortar, because the clay will eventually just wash away the rain.
The chimney is built in an exclusively vertical position with a precisely aligned cross section and height.
Where the pipe will be in contact with the wooden floor is made a widening that does not adhere to the combustible materials and in the resulting hole is thrust hemp or asbestos impregnated with a clay mortar.
A deflector made of metal is put on top of the chimney. It not only prevents the penetration of precipitation, but also dampens the formation of sparks, which is very important in terms of fire safety.
What to look for when choosing a stove for the country
alt=”cottage heater” width=”460″ height=”307″ /
Choosing a heating for the cottage, you should consider many criteria. Consider the most important of them.
The size of the room. In most cases, cottages can not boast impressive size, so to install a full-fledged stove with a cot for heating such a small room will be at least irrational. That is why dachas are mostly heated using less cumbersome designs. brick Dutch or Swedish stoves, as well as long-burning stoves (Bulerian, Professor Butakov’s stove, etc.).).
Frequency of use. In most cases, this factor is decisive. If in the spring and summer period you visit the cottage only sometimes or only on weekends, and in the fall and winter you go there at best 1-2 times a month or even less often, it makes sense to prefer “alternative” heat sources: oil or infrared heater, convector, stove or oven-fireplace.
Features of the foundation. Brick stoves, even if they are relatively small “Dutch” and “Swedish”, in any case will require the construction of a separate foundation.
It is one thing if you face the task of building a new or updating an old stove, and quite another thing. to pick up heating for the house, which was previously used exclusively for summer residence. Therefore, before you take on construction work, you should first soberly assess not only your financial capabilities and professional skills, but also the peculiarities of the foundation design.
General state of the house. Do not forget about the fact that in order to keep the room warm, not enough is the warmth to “get” it must also keep. If you plan to often stay at the cottage during the cold season, then you should think not only about the furnace, but also about the insulation of the whole house.
Decorativeness. This parameter may seem to be of secondary importance, but in fact it is not so. When choosing a stove for the country house, you should clearly understand that this design will take up quite a lot of space. So before you give your preference to this or that model (and there are a great many of them), think about whether it will fit harmoniously into the overall picture.
Построили недорогой дом своими руками. От начала до конца
Even if your interior was created on the principle of “for the apartment is no longer relevant, but for the cottage. just right,” be sure to think. The stove is not a curtain, you can not just take it and replace it with a new one, just because you are bored with the old one.
Choosing a stove for the house, you should always be guided by logic and common sense. If you often spend the night in the country and have the possibility to heat the stove all the time, in this case you might want to consider a brick oven.
Building your stove
Built a stove in the country with their own hands from bricks, as mentioned above, can not only heat the room, but also serve as a stove on which you can cook food. Below we will consider the construction of such a construction, which consists of two chambers.
The lower furnace is the main and serves to heat the room of the cottage. The upper one serves for cooking. A cast-iron plate with burners is used as the top of the stove.
Tip! Special sheets for such stoves, which have one or two round holes, can be found on the market.
Before proceeding to the construction, you need to prepare drawings of the future stove. It must be said that, without being an expert, it is unlikely to be possible to prepare drawings of the furnace for the country house with your own hands. Therefore, it is better to use ready-made projects that can be found on the Internet, in particular, some of them are also available on our construction portal.
Also, you can ask for help from specialized firms that can prepare the design of the stove according to individual requirements. Such services makes sense if you want to build a whole complex. a Russian stove with a barbecue, a fireplace, etc.
When preparing the project, you should immediately decide where exactly the dacha stove will be built with their own hands, and how much space it will take. Therefore, at this stage, you will need a plan of the country house, which should depict the furnace with all the dimensions.
Before folding an oven in the country with his own hands, you should prepare a set of building materials:
- Fireproof and stove full-body bricks;
- Clay for mortar;
- Cast iron stove with burners;
- Cast iron doors for the furnace;
- Asbestos or metal pipe at least 3 meters long;
- Tools for masonry;
- Tank for mortar;
- Ingredients for concrete. sand, cement and crushed stone.
Stove for villas with their own hands is necessarily built on the foundation. Therefore, first of all it is necessary to prepare a concrete base. For this purpose, a slab of the appropriate size is poured, the surface of which must be perfectly flat.
The process of pouring the foundation for a dacha stove does not differ from the execution of an ordinary screed. Only when the concrete has hardened completely can the following work be started. This usually takes 28 days.
Stoves and fireplaces for villas with their own hands are erected from a special stove brick. The fire chamber is filled with refractory bricks. Before proceeding to masonry, bricks should be soaked in water for 5-6 hours.
Laying is carried out on the clay mortar, which should have the consistency of thick sour cream. The bricks are laid with their own hands according to the scheme above.
- Bricks should be smeared with clay and placed on the slab;
- The first row is laid the same way, with the level and plumb line to check the evenness of laying. The joint between the bricks should be no more than 3 millimeters.
- All subsequent rows of bricks are laid according to the scheme. At the same time the doors are installed in the marked places.
- After the erection of a brick construction, it is necessary to lay a cast-iron plate, caulking the joint with clay mortar. If necessary, the slab can be trimmed with an angle grinder.
- The final stage of construction of the furnace is the installation of the chimney, which should rise above the roof at least one meter. On our portal you can find detailed information about the device of this design.
Tip! If the dacha site is not connected to electricity, to provide electricity during construction will help rent a diesel generator for dachas.
Here are, perhaps, all the basic stages of construction. If the technology was followed, then the repair of the furnace in the dacha with his own hands will not need soon.
Brick oven: design rules, masonry features and drawings
What is comfort in the house? This is when it is warm in winter and cool in summer, to tread on a pleasant to the touch, not icy flooring, comfortable furniture and a cozy bed for you and your children. Children fall asleep faster and sleep better when it is warm and comfortable to sleep on soft, children’s mattresses https://mebelsait.dp.ua/detskie-matrasy.
When you think about building your own house, there is a desire to make it warm and cozy. Modern gas and electric boilers, converters, etc. can do the job of heating your home.д., But they can’t create a cozy atmosphere. That’s why stove heating is once again actively used.
The stove is a design highlight, and an economical heating device. For masonry stoves it is much easier to find an experienced stove-mason. But this long-forgotten craft has only just begun to gain popularity, and there are very few experienced stovemakers.
Therefore, a reasonable question arises: “How to stack a brick oven with your own hands?”.
Proper laying of the furnace requires a lot of effort, and you will also have to study many instructions for masonry brick ovens.