How to choose the right water heater?
The question of how to choose a water heater is not easy for those who want to provide family with hot water, but do not want to overpay for unnecessary functions. There is no need to talk about how hot water is needed in the house. To make the right choice, you should understand modifications, find out what water heaters are.
Choose a column or boiler based on the need for hot water, the availability of appropriate communications. Industry produces modifications of distinguishing:
- according to the heating source: electric, gas, indirect heating and others;
- on the principle of water supply: flowing, accumulative, bulk;
- at the installation site: floor, wall;
- By orientation in space: vertical, horizontal.
Heating and water supply method
Manufacturers offer various types of water heaters designed for gas and electric heat.
Staying a choice on an electric boiler, you should take into account the large electricity consumption. In old houses, the wiring is weak and for connecting the boiler you need to strengthen the cable.
The network voltage with electrical household slabs can withstand the voltage of the network without problems. In such houses, a large energy consumption is initially provided.
To install a gas water heater, any type of gas is necessary. Modern models work not only from the central gas system, but also from household liquefied gas. The most commonly offers running gas speakers.
The types of water heaters are divided into floor and wall.
The modifications of the floor type are installed in rooms with a large area.
Small wall equipment is suitable for an apartment or a private house with a limited space. The selection of the model is made taking into account the load on the surface. Containers with a tank with a volume of more than 50 liters, require a special increase in the wall.
Powerful electric water heaters are a floor type. Gas speakers are placed on the wall. Boilers are able to heat a large amount of water, this is an option for a consumer with a large consumption of hot water.
Vertical or horizontal
By orientation in space, water heaters are vertical and horizontal. The choice depends on where you plan a free space of the house. For example, a horizontal water heater on the wall under the ceiling will practically not take an important space.
Horizontal storage water heaters have a significant drawback: the upper layers of warm water are mixed faster with the lower cold, which is why their effectiveness below.
Making the choice of a storage.type water heater, they take into account the positive and negative aspects of the technique. Boilers have several advantages:
- may have several heating elements;
- They work as a thermos. they hold a constant temperature of heated water for a long time;
- Models with various volume of the tank are provided;
- provide a constant heating temperature;
- do not depend on the pressure of water in the system.
Release 2 types of heating elements for accumulative electrical apparatuses. tubular electric heaters (heating elements) and spiral. The first option is cheap, simple in work, easily changes if necessary. The second is expensive, difficult to replace but more powerful. A boiler with a spiral type of heater will cost more, given the high cost of a heating part.
All models are equipped with thermostats that automatically turn off the unit after reaching the given water temperature.
Several heating is installed in large boilers. They work in different mode. for weak or strong heating. They are included depending on the necessity. the step type of work provides for a sequential connection of each element or heating of water using one or 2 devices. The second option for a slight heating of water.
Less commonly, manufacturers offer storage equipment with gas heating water. What is better to choose. a gas or electric water heater depends on several indicators. You should dwell on a specific model, given all positions.
The inner body of the tank can be covered with enamel, made with titanium spraying. Enameled containers are the most lost. they quickly fail, as the enamel quickly cracks, exfoliates. The advantage of such tanks is their low price. Titanium buildings are strong, durable, but also the most expensive. The best option for household needs. stainless steel. This is a reliable material protected from corrosion, ready to serve for decades. The cost of boilers made of steel with a special coating is less than titanium.
The external coating of any type of accumulative boilers does not heat up, thanks to the insulation layer. The walls of the water heater with hot water are slightly warm when touching. Such a move allows you to maintain a certain temperature of the water for a long time, does not create discomfort in the room where the device is located. The insulation is placed between the inner and outer layers of the container, completely isolate.
Some boilers have a function of maintaining water temperature. After activation, the option retains the temperature for the day.
How to choose a good storage water heater?
When choosing a storage water heater, pay attention to the following parameters:
The most compact models up to 30 liters are perfect for giving, small kitchen or bathroom. It is difficult to think about taking a shower, but to cope with the dishes, to wash. this is without problems.
50-liter water heaters are already capable of providing quite comfortable sole washing, but the next user may have to wait for the time due to re-heating.
For a family of 2-3 people, a 80 liter boiler is perfect. However, if there is an insurmountable desire to take a bath or a cell of society consists of 4 or more active users, it makes sense to think about buying a model for 100, or even 120 liters.
There are water heaters and a larger volume up to 300 liters, but it is rather not domestic, but industrial devices.
Everything is clear here. The more, the faster heating. Usually varies in the range from 1 to 2.5 kW. Just need to decide on the capabilities of your network.
Type of heater
The first option is simpler and cheap, the second is reliable, durable and eliminates the fussing of a scale.
There are two main options. enameled or stainless steel.
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- High-quality enamel has anti-corrosion properties, may contain silver ions for disinfection, only you are unlikely to somehow feel it (this is more likely marketing).
- The “stainless steel” is traditionally durable, reliable, but it is more expensive. Manufacturers often give the same guarantee for tanks from both materials, then the difference is leveled.
Protects the tank from leaks and prolongs its “life”. The material of the tank does not necessarily matter, because welded seams are often a problem area, and the “stainless steel” is different.
Storage water heater which company is better?
It is important for starting to figure out the method of heating here. Models with indirect. a means of providing hydraulic devices working in conjunction with heating equipment. Combined versions of “drives” are practically the same, but also with the heating element (or its optional installation is supported). over, an electric element is rather a reserve source of thermal energy. For such water heaters, a separate review is relevant. And we have it.
Today’s rating heroes are self.sufficient boilers who do not need additional devices. These are independent purely electric or gas storage water heaters.
Electric storage water heaters occupy the lion’s share of the market, are produced mainly by brands that have proven themselves, as manufacturers of popular household and climate (also household) equipment. In the top Electrolux and its subsidiary Zanussi. True, it is difficult to name the Swedish or Italian water heaters (they are advancing on the territory of Rusklimat, the assembly of China or the well.known Ariston, Korean Hyundai, Chinese Ballu are ready to compose serious competition.
Driving gas water heaters are presented on sale with a small assortment. Nevertheless, for apartments, running speakers are almost a non.alternative option. But in gasified suburban houses, cottages, equipment with a large tank, which is independent of the boiler and electricity, will clearly have to come to the court (of course, with installation in the interior).
This class has undeniable leaders. American brands Bradford White, American Water Heater. With competent operation and timely maintenance, their models are not “demolition” not several, but for 10 years or more. Other companies are trying to do something, the same Ariston, another “Italian” BAXI, Hungarian company Hajdu, but to the level of quality, technology, reliability of the above favorites, their products still do not reach.
This device is a tank where water accumulates. The case is equipped with thermal protection, which allows you to maintain the temperature and save electricity. When compared with flowing, then the accumulative consumes less electricity due to the principle of operation (only 1.5-2 kW).
It is enough to connect the boiler into a regular outlet to use hot water daily. Upon reaching the set temperature, the heater is turned off, and then periodically turns on.
The disadvantage may be too much for your home the volume of the tank. It should be calculated for its intended purpose and number of people. For example:
- The volume of 40 liters is enough for washing dishes in the kitchen or for taking a shower by one person.
- For the kitchen and shower, two users will need a capacity of 80 liters.
- For three people, a 100 liter boiler is suitable.
- Four people. from 120 liters.
See the table and choose the volume wisely:
Of the shortcomings, the expectation of heating can be noted. The device also requires permanent maintenance by the master or user. It is necessary to check the safety of the magnesium anode, which protects the tank from corrosion. How to clean the water heater, read in the previous article.
In addition, the cost of funded equipment is higher than a running.
What hey to give preference
For heating in the accumulative boiler, the heater is installed. It is dry and wet like.
Closed type consists of a flask. It is made of steatitis or magnesium silicate. The element heats the shell, and it transfers heat to the environment.
- Increased service life. The element does not contact with liquid, so it is not terrible scale and corrosion.
- The probability of current leakage and breakdown on the case is excluded.
- Low energy consumption.
- Easy replacement.
An open (wet) element has its advantages:
Types of the accumulative heater
Devices are also two types: open and closed.
Open or non.pressure are installed only on one point. For example, a sink in the kitchen or shower in the bathroom. The method of mounting pipes allows you to install the tank both above the sink and below.
The principle of operation is as follows: you open the water supply crane, a cold stream enters the tank, displacing hot. When heated, excess fluid flows. To protect the operation of the equipment, the fuse is connected. This type is easy to operate and installed.
Closed are connected to the water supply and work from pressure in the tank. For its regulation, a safety valve is installed. A huge advantage of a closed type in the possibility of using hot flow at several points of the fence.
However, with pressure in pipes less than 6 atm, the equipment will not work.
To reduce the amount of water consumed, they recommend that you adhere to such rules:
- Take a shower in turn, 40 minutes after the previous person.
- Disconnect the feed during soaping.
- Today you can find special nozzles on sale. aerators who save consumption by 30%.
Due to the absence of a tank, the water heater has compact dimensions. Many models are equipped with a stylish design, so you can place a water heating device anywhere.
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It also allows you to instantly get hot water. To determine the throughput that is suitable for your family, do this:
- Put 10 liters in the bathroom.
- Turn on a shower with the usual pressure in which you wash.
- Cut the time to fill the bucket.
- 1 minute. choose a pass of 10 liters per minute.
- 30 seconds. 20 liters.
When installing a device of this type, it is important to consider the type of network. If the power of the device is 12 kW, it is possible to connect to a single.phase network. From 12 to 36 kW. to three.phase.
Flot devices also come in two types:
- Underwear. They are supplied with a shower nozzle. Good when used in the summer, for example, in the country. The temperature reaches 30 degrees. However, the nozzle is quickly clogged, so it does not fit for constant use.
Mini-heaters have been developed for washing hands today. They are installed on the taps and pass about three liters per minute.
The main advantages of running equipment:
During work, the technique consumes a lot of energy. than 7 kW will need to feed hot water for simple washing in the shower.
Calculate the number of water clearance points
As a rule, running water heaters are designed for use at one point, for example, a washbasin. powerful devices that crash into the water supply are capable of providing hot water with a sink and shower, but at the same time they are demanding to the connection line and are much more expensive.
With a properly selected volume of the drive, you can simultaneously wash the dishes and take a shower or even fill the bath.
Consider the heating speed
Powerful heating heats in the running heaters allow you to bring water to the desired temperature almost instantly: after 20–25 seconds, instead of cold from the tap, a warm one will go from the tap.
In boilers, everything is exactly the opposite. Due to the heating elements of low power, the primary heating takes a long time. For 15-liter tanks, this is about 40 minutes, for models with a capacity of 80 liters-about 3 hours. Then heating occurs automatically and imperceptibly.
If you need hot water a little and not so often, choose a running model. In other cases, the boiler will be more profitable.
Internal stainless steel tanks
Internal tanks can be resistant to corrosion due to what material they are made of. If alloying additives are added to the steel alloy, most often it is chrome, nickel or molybdenum, then it becomes resistant to the chemical effect of water in itself. The biggest danger to such internal tanks is welding. If it is carried out incorrectly, then in the seam places all alloying additives burn out and the material rusts. To create strong stainless steel tanks, various manufacturers use technologies such as g.5. A set of procedures, including cold welding, the use of robots and the supply of special gas, which allows you to make tanks resistant to corrosion even at welds. Such internal tanks do not need constant replacement of the anode and have an even longer guarantee. from 7 years.
Most often, enameled internal tanks are located in a round housing, and a narrow technique is made of stainless steel. This is not necessary correctly, there are flat water heaters with enameled internal tanks, and round. with stainless steel tanks.
Heating elements in water heater are two types. Dry and submersible. Submers are called classic heating elements that are located inside the tank and directly contact with water. These include copper heating, stainless steel, Titaniumheat Ten and other heating elements. Submitting type heating elements are made of materials with high thermal conductivity and can be equipped with corrosion protection.
Dry heating elements do not contact with water directly. They are located in special flasks that transmit heat from heating. Flasks protect heating elements from corrosion, which makes them more durable.
It should be borne in mind that the heating element in the water heater is always consumable. Water contains hardness salts, better known as scale, which, when heated, begin to settle around the heater or flask and cause local overheating, and after it. and microcracks. As a result, heating elements are burned out and they need to be replaced, so it is worth considering the price of a heating element when choosing a water heater. Dry heating elements are considered more resistant to scale, as it can settle on the most warmed circuit, which makes them more durable. Also, due to indirect heat transfer, heating becomes more uniform, which reduces the amount of scale and also helps to protect the heating element.
How to calculate the tank capacity
For a family of 4 people, you can calculate spaciousness according to this formula:
P is the amount of liquid that you need for daily use. To calculate this indicator, take into account what water is consumed for. For example: for taking a shower, 5 liters will need. You take it within 10 minutes. So: 5 x 10 x 4 (number of people) = 200.
t °. water temperature in the crane at the output. For normal use without mixing, 38 degrees are enough.
T1. input temperature; in summer it can reach 16 ° C, in winter 9 ° C.
T2. heating temperature; can reach 85-90 degrees.
It remains to substitute specific numbers and calculate the size and capacity of the tank. Products of more than 150 liters are not hung on the wall, but installed on the floor. There will be enough space for their placement.
No need to think that you will have pure hot water consumption. If you prefer to accept the bathroom, then the hot flow will be diluted with cold to achieve a comfortable temperature.
Experts recommend setting heating no more than 55 degrees. This will avoid the formation of scale and its deposits on the details of the boiler.
The selection of a running water heater is performed in the same way. However, the fluid preparation time is calculated according to another formula:
P is the amount of fluid consumed.
Q. the power of the device that is indicated in the documentation.
TTV and TXV. temperature of warm and cold water.
Here, with such calculations, the choice of a heater begins, which is optimal for your family. In the store you can already evaluate the design of equipment, quality of manufacture. The heating power, safety, degree of protection against corrosion also matters. View will help to decide
The principle of operation and the device of the boiler
Before choosing a model, you need to understand the features of the work. The accumulative type technique is a metal tank, the volume can be different. From the inside the walls are covered with enamel, which protects against corrosion. It has a heater and a magnesium anode. Outside is covered with a layer of thermal insulation, the case is made of sheet metal.
Water supply pipes are connected to it. In the tank, water accumulates and heats up to a given temperature. After that, the heater periodically turns on for heating, and thermal insulation minimizes losses.
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The diagram of the device of the electric water heater:
There are gas fuel models. The design of the tank is similar to the electric, but instead of the heater, there is a heat exchanger inside. a coil of steel, brass, copper. The coolant circulates in it, which heats up from the gas burner placed below. There is an exhaust cap on top, through it the combustion products are removed.
Among the boilers with a volume of 30 liters are most popular:
This volume is enough for 1 person or family with a small consumption of hot water.
For a large family, you should choose the most popular 100 liter models offered by firms:
Modular Heat Storage
The choice of boiler is responsible, since the technique is purchased for a long period of time. The market offers a large assortment of storage water heaters of different companies. The model should be acquired based on specific operating conditions, financial capabilities.
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What is the best option for choosing a water heater for a home or apartment, this issue faces each of us when repairing or entering a new home.
The stores have a very rich selection of models and manufacturers. Thermex, Ariston, Gorenje, Electrolux. How not to make a mistake in such a variety that can easily lead to a waste of extra money, and then to a second trip after another purchase.
In fact, the choice is not so great. There are two main types of water heaters:
In the suppuration, the water heats up very quickly, it is enough to go through a heating element. It seems that you still need?
However, such heating implies a sharp decrease in the maximum possible pressure.
If you want to get a more powerful stream, in this case you will have to use a more powerful heating element from 8 kW to 30 kW!
In storage water heaters, the change in the pressure practically does not occur. What’s at the entrance, then at the exit.
Thanks to this, this type can simultaneously provide several points in the house with hot water supply. But this is when using the water heater of the corresponding volume (100-150-200L).
And their choice of volume is quite extensive. from 5 to 300 liters.
First of all, remember that the boiler can only be hung on the supporting wall in order to be able to securely fix it.
Even empty, small in volume models weigh 15-20 kg. And if the container filled with boiling water breaks off the mounts, the consequences will be sad.
How to choose the right liter and how much to buy a boiler, depending on the number of family members living in the house? Here are the main recommendations:
This option is also acceptable for pensioners or when you intend to use the water heater only in the kitchen.
In general, if there are young children in the family, the optimal volume is at least 100 liters. Never take less.
At the same time, it is extremely desirable to install the filter in front of the boiler for water purification.
They are usually designed to clean 15,000 liters of water.
That is, if the volume of the boiler is 80-100 liters, then the replaced cartridge will need to be changed 2 times a year.
With this volume, first of all, think about high.quality fasteners and the bearing capacity of the wall. In a country house for 200l or more, it is better to choose floor models with legs.
Many are not guessed, but the shape of the tank also greatly affects the working conditions of the boiler. On the one hand, flat, so.called SLIM models, occupy less space and have more design options.
However, they have large heat loss than in cylindrical tanks. In addition, they heat up slower.
Therefore, if the form is not so important for you, it is better to choose a cylindrical. True, do not forget that it will bulge 40-50 cm from the wall.
Another of the distinctive features of accumulative water heaters is the tank. It can be made of 3 main types of material:
The main advantage of plastic tanks is no chemical interaction with water. This means that the oxidation and corrosion of the walls should not occur.
The main drawback is fragility. In most cases, such a boiler is not suitable for hanging the wall. It is better to install it in any niche.
If the tank is made of high.quality stainless steel, with a large mroma (more than 30%), and the wall thickness will be the same as that of the tank with enamel, its cost will be prohibitive.