Typical radiators connection schemes in a private house: Features of a single.Pipe and two.Pipe connection
I must say that electric heating is the most effective of all existing. Not only are the efficiency of boilers about 99%, so in addition they do not require chimneys and ventilation. Maintenance of units as such is practically absent, except that cleaning 1 time every 2-3 years. And most importantly: equipment and installation are very cheap, while the degree of automation can be any. The boiler just does not need your attention.
How pleasant the advantages of the electric boiler are, the main drawback is equally significant. The price of electricity. Even if you use a multi.Tariff meter of electricity, it will not be possible to bypass this indicator of a wood.Free heat generator. This is the fee for comfort, reliability and high efficiency. Well, the second minus. The absence of the necessary electric power on the supply networks. Such an annoying nuisance can cross all thoughts about electric heating at once.
Possible circuits for connecting radiators
The most effective connection of batteries is quite easy to perform-both from the point of view of the number of nodes and in terms of installation technology.
Two.Pipe classic wiring
Classic two.Pipe wiring scheme system of heating.
In the classical scheme, the direction of movement of the coolant in the supply pipeline is opposite to the movement in the reverse pipeline. This scheme is most common in modern heating systems both in multi.Storey construction and in private individual. The two.Pipe circuit allows you to evenly distribute the coolant between the radiators without loss of temperature and effectively adjust the heat transfer in each room, including automatically by using thermostatic valves with installed thermal hills.
Such a device has a two.Pipe heating system in a multi.Storey building.
A passing scheme or “loop of the Tichelman”
A passing scheme is a variation of a classic scheme with the difference that the direction of movement of the coolant in the supply and return coincides. This scheme is used in heating systems with long and remote branches. Using a passing circuit allows you to reduce the hydraulic resistance of the branch and evenly distribute the coolant along all radiators.
The fan or radial scheme is used in multi.Storey building for apartment heating with the possibility of installing heat (heat meter) for each apartment of the meter and in private household in systems with stages with stages of pipelines. With a fan scheme in a multi.Storey building on each floor, a collector is installed with exits to all apartments of a separate pipeline and installed by the heat meter. This allows each owner of the apartment to take into account and pay only the heat consumed for them.
In a private house, the fan scheme is used for the poetry distribution of pipelines and for the radiator connection of each radiator to a common collector, t. E. A separate pipe of feed and return from the collector is like each radiator. This connection method allows you to disperse the coolant to the radiators as evenly as possible and reduce the hydraulic losses of all elements of the heating system.
What is needed for installation?
For the correct independent installation of a heating radiator, the owner of the home requires special tools and some supplies. Type, size depend on the variety of the mounted heating battery, the connection methods, etc. D. But some elements are needed in any case.
In some models of radiators, brackets are included. If it is absent, then the element is sold in almost every construction store.
The market presents many different fasteners in design, shape. All of them are inherent in high bearing capacity and transfer of the load from the weight of the radiator to the wall. The brackets can be fixed, equipped with an adjusting mechanism, different in length and height.
Maevsky crane or automatic air vent
At the time of heating (after the summer period) during the passage of the coolant through the system, the captured air enters the batteries. The formed air traffic jams partially block the passage of warm water in the upper collector of the radiator, t. E. Water will remain cooled.
Initially at the top of the heating device, classic water taps are mounted. Air discharge with their help is accompanied by a large volume of water. All new models of radiators include air vents or Maevsky crane. Find out how to choose, install and lower the air.
- Small size;
- It is screwed on one side of the upper distributor into a free hole;
- It can be mounted using a special adapter if the tap circumference differs from the size of the threaded entrance to the distributor;
- During installation, a plumbing seal is wound on the crane;
- Installation is impossible without a wrench, it helps to tighten the tap until it stops.
With the help of Maevsky crane, air is discharged, unscrewing the screw or handle. Turning the ring changes the direction of the air flow. It is believed that the air is dropped when a water stream appears.
- If the radiator is equipped with an automatic air vent, then the work has the principle of float.
- The float under air pressure begins to affect the nipple, which opens until the air plug is completely removed from the heating device.
- Buying batteries to purchase and mount it better in autonomous heating systems.
- The machine is quickly polluted and fails.
About how to properly steal the air and why it is necessary, it is told in
Types of panel radiators
The first two varieties are intended for hospitals, schools and kindergartens. The most popular manufacturers of such models are Purmo and Kermi.
Purmo Compact steel panel radiators
As for profile batteries, they are made of sheet steel and covered outside with special powder spraying. Also covered with neutral anti.Corrosion varnish, and therefore are able to last for many years. Note that such radiators can be of any color.
Bimetallic heating radiators
Tubular steel batteries are better than panel, because they can be turned over by any side (in this case, panel models are bought with a specific connection). The coolant in tubular models is supplied directly to the extreme section, which is very good if you need to replace old batteries with new.
Steel tubular radiator
Master Class. An example of installing a heating radiator with your own hands
Consider the algorithm of actions when connecting the battery to the heating system.
First, prepare and collect the heating radiator itself. Clean all threaded holes from factory lubricant, for which you can use a special cleaning agent and ruff.
Preparation of the radiator
Having finished processing, remove the remnants of the cleaner with a paper cloth. It is important that the holes turn out as clean and dry as possible.
The hole is wiped dry
Install adapters (in our example it is ½ and ¾ inch).
Install the “American” from the crane to the adapter that you installed in advance. For twisting, use a special key for “Americans”. As a result, you will equip a couple of holes. The input and output (in the example they are located diagonally).
The “American” key for the “Americans” is set the key to “Americans”
On unnecessary holes that need to be closed, set the plugs.
Installation of a plug
Prepare the shanks (these are special thin tubes), cut them. Remove the internal chamfer in the shanks. Then feel the internal parts. It is important that the burrs are not felt there.
The tube (shank) is prepared for removing the internal chamfer
Put a nut on the tube, a brass spacer and elastic band (namely in this sequence). Then expand the tube with a special device, inserting it inward until it stops. After expansion, the tube will no longer be able to jump out of its place under the action of pressure during the operation of the heating system.
The expansion of the pipe
Put the elastic band and other parts to the expanded edge, attach the adapter.
Mark the place where the radiator will be installed on the wall, in accordance with the requirements described above. First, determine the center of the windowsill, measure 10 cm down. The battery mounts will be located at that level.
Draw a fishing line for a trimmer to install holders parallel to the windowsill at a distance of 10 cm. The holders themselves will be attached to dowels.
Drawing line of installation of holders
Another mount will be located 12 cm from the floor surface along the vertical central line.
Installation of the lower mount
Install the battery for mounts, align it in level.
Installation of a heating radiator
Note! If necessary, you can slightly adjust the battery mounts.
Sovele on the wall of the place where the strokes will be located (in our example, pipe laying will be carried out inside the wall). Do this in all places where the pipes will be connected to the radiator.
Marking for future wall stroke
Carry out the stroke of the previously intended areas. Remove the battery to make it more convenient to carry out work.
Prepare the tubes. Make a mark on which they will be cut off, as shown in the picture below.
How to blocked the battery
The answer to the question of how to disable the heating battery is extremely simple. It is enough to close one crane, leaving the second open. But what a crane overlap?
As we understand, water is supplied to the heating riser from below.
- The upper tap is closed, and the bottom is open. If repair work is carried out from the neighbors from below or in the basement, or on a branch that feeds the house, the coolant will merge, and your radiator will be devastated. If it is steel or cast.Iron, this will provoke corrosion.
- The lower tap is closed and the upper is open. Regardless of any repairs, the radiator will be filled.
So, we learned how to block the battery for the summer season: for this, close only the bottom ball crane.
Upon the onset of cold weather, follow the ads at the entrance about the beginning of the heating season. Then redraw both ball valves so that the garbage does not get into the radiator. Let it go through the bypass. Battery rupture with closed cranes in this case does not threaten you-in one or two days a sufficient pressure will not be able to form inside the radiator. The apartment during this time also does not have time to freeze, especially, a small heating of the room will be from the riser.
How to enable the heating battery? There is nothing complicated. Just open both ball valves, and the coolant will begin normal circulation through the on the turned on the radiator.
On the first day of turning on heating, when the murmur of water in the system is heard, do not rush to open ball valves. The next day you can open them using the Maevsky crane to produce air
Attention! If you live on the top floor, you must have an air vent on the radiator. This will avoid the formation of air plugs, due to which the heating device does not perform its functions
Knowing how to close the heating battery, you can decide how to prepare for the new heating season in the summer.
Work on installing bypas and ball valves should be done by professionals with the involvement of a plumbing that will block the water in the riser. Please note that welding and appropriate equipment will be required.
Emergency replacement of heating batteries
Ball crashes and bypass is an opportunity:
- Ensure the safety of their batteries from corrosion and pollution;
- Do not suffer from the heat with sharp warming during the heating period;
- Ensure safety in case of emergency. If the radiator fails, it can be turned off from the system, while the neighbors will not suffer from the flood or the lack of heat;
- At any convenient time, replace the old radiator yourself with a new one;
- Remove batteries for washing or coloring.
- Successfully use modern radiators with a thermostat without interfering with neighbors.
A competent approach to the organization of apartment heating is concern for comfort and security.
What you need for the effective operation of batteries
An effective heating system is able to save money on fuel payment. Therefore, while engaged in its design, you should make a balanced decisions. After all, sometimes the advice of a neighbor in a summer house or a friend recommends such a system as his, does not fit at all.
It happens that there is no time to deal with these issues yourself. In this case, it is better to contact professionals working in this area from 5 years old and having grateful reviews.
Correct connection is guaranteed to provide comfortable accommodation in the house of all family members. After all, when choosing a scheme, you need to take into account a number of features of your home
Having decided to independently connect heating radiators, it must be borne in mind that the following indicators have a direct effect on their effectiveness:
The choice of heating devices is amazing the imagination of an inexperienced consumer. Among the sentences are wall.Mounted batteries from various materials, floor and skirting convectors. All of them have a different shape, size, level of heat transfer, type of connection. These characteristics should be taken into account when installing heating devices in the system.
Among the models of heating devices presented on the market, it is better to choose, focusing on the material and thermal power indicated by the manufacturer
For each room, the number of radiators and their size will differ. It all depends on the area of the room, the level of insulation of the external walls of the building, the connection circuit, the thermal power specified by the manufacturer in the product passport.
The location of the batteries is under the window, between the windows located at a fairly long distance from each other, along the deaf wall or in the corner of the room, in the hallway, pantry, bathroom, in the entrances of apartment buildings.
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Depending on the place and method of installation of the heating device, there will be different heat losses. The most unsuccessful option is the radiator completely closed by the screen
Between the wall and the heating device, it is recommended to install a heat.Refracting screen. It can be made with your own hands, using for this one of the materials reflecting the heat. Foam, isopan or the other foil analogue. Also, you should adhere to such basic rules for mounting the battery under the window:
- All radiators in one room are located at the same level;
- Ribs of convectors in an upright position;
- The center of heating equipment coincides with the center of the window or is 2 cm to the right (to the left);
- Battery length of at least 75% of the length of the window itself;
- The distance to the windowsill is at least 5 cm, to the floor. Not less than 6 cm. The optimal distance is 10-12 cm.
The level of heat transfer of instruments and heat loss in the house depends on the correct connection of radiators to the heating system.
Having withstand the basic norms for the placement of radiators, you can prevent the penetration of cold into the room through the window as much as possible
It happens that the owner of the dwelling is guided by the advice of a friend, but the result is not at all as expected. Everything is done like him, but only batteries do not want to warm. So the selected connection scheme did not fit specifically for this house, the area of the premises, thermal capacity of heating devices were not taken into account, or annoying errors were made during installation.
The necessary information for the correct choice of the radiator connection scheme
In order for further explanations to become an inexperienced reader more understandable, it makes sense to begin with what is the standard heating radiator in principle. The term “standard” applied because there are completely “exotic” batteries, but their consideration does not include the plans of this publication.
The fundamental device of the heating radiator
So, if you depict a conventional heating radiator schematically, this picture can turn out:
This is how most heating radiators are arranged
From the point of view of the layout, this is usually the totality of heat exchangers (poses.One). The number of these sections may vary in a fairly wide range. Many batteries make it possible to vary this quantity by adding and reducing, depending on the necessary thermal total power or based on the maximum permissible assembly size. For this, between the sections, a threaded connection is provided using special couplings (nipples) with the necessary compaction. Other radiators of this possibility do not imply their sections are connected “tightly” or completely represent a single metal structure. But in the light of our topic, this difference of fundamental significance does not have.
But what is important is, so to speak, the hydraulic part of the battery. All sections are united by common collectors located horizontally from above (pos. 2) and from below (pos. 3). And at the same time. In each section, the connection of these collectors with a vertical channel is provided (pos. 4) for the movement of the coolant.
Each of the collectors has two entrances, respectively. On the diagram, they are indicated G1 and G2 for the upper manifold, G3 and G4. For the lower.
In the vast majority of connection schemes used in heating systems of private houses, only two of these entrances are always involved. One is connected to the feed pipe (that is, coming from the boiler). The second is to the “return”, that is, to the pipe, according to which the coolant returns from the radiator to the boiler room. The remaining two entrances are overlapped with plugs or other locking devices.
And here is what is important. From how mutually these two entrances, filing and “return” are mutually located, and the effectiveness of the expected heat transfer of the heating radiator depends in many ways.
Note: Of course, the scheme is given with significant simplification, and in many types of radiators can have its own characteristics. For example. In acquaintances of cast.Iron batteries such as MS. 140 each section has two vertical channels connecting collectors. And in panel steel radiators there are no sections at all. But the system of internal channels, in principle, repeats the shown hydraulic scheme. So everything that will be said later applies to them.
Where is the feed pipe, and where is the “Refunctions”?
It is understandable that in order to properly optimally place the entrance and exit to the radiator, it is necessary to know at least in which direction the movement of the coolant is carried out. In other words, where is the presentation, and where is the “return”. And the fundamental difference can be hidden already in the type of heating system. It is one.Pipe or two.Pipe.
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Features of a single.Pipe system
This heating system is especially common in high.Rise buildings, is quite widely popular in one.Story individual construction. Its wide demand is primarily based on the fact that when creating it requires significantly smaller pipes, the volumes of installation work are reduced.
If you explain as simple as possible. Then this system is one pipe passing from the supply pipe to the input pipe of the boiler (as an option. From the feeder to the reverse manifold), on which it is “strung” by sequentially connected heating radiators.
On the scale of the same level (floor) it may look something like this:
A simplified example of a one.Pipe heating system on one floor
It is quite obvious that the “return” of the first radiator in the “chain” becomes the presentation of the next. And so on, until the end of this closed contour. It is clear that from the beginning to the end of a single.Pipe circuit the temperature of the coolant is steadily reduced, and this is one of the most significant disadvantages of such a system.
The vertical location of a single.Pipe circuit, which is characteristic of buildings in several floors, is also possible. This approach was usually practiced during the construction of urban apartment buildings. However, you can find it in private houses in several floors. This should also not be forgotten if, say, the house went to the owners from the old owners, that is, with the already mounted wiring of the heating contours.
Two options are possible here, shown below on the diagram, respectively, under the letters “A” and “B”.
For popular heating radiators
- Option “a” is called a riser with the top supply of the coolant. That is, from the feed collector (boiler), the pipe rises freely to the highest point of the riser, and then sequentially passes down through all the radiators. That is, the supply of hot coolant directly on the batteries is carried out in the direction from top to bottom.
- Option “b”. One.Pipe wiring with a lower presentation. Already in the way up, along the ascending pipe, the coolant will pass the series of radiators. Then the direction of the flow changes to the opposite, the coolant passes through a string of batteries until it gets into the “Reverse” collector.
The second option is used for considerations of pipes saving, but obviously. That the lack of a single.Pipe system, that is, the drop in temperature from the radiator to the radiator along the coolant, is expressed to an even greater extent.
Thus, if a single.Pipe system is mounted in your house or apartment, then to select the optimal connection diagram of radiators, you should clarify in which direction the coolant is supplied in the direction.
Varieties of connection of radiators
The main methods of connecting devices of heating systems are several types:
Connection from the end of the device. Feed and return are on one side of the radiator. This is the most common and effective method of connecting, it allows you to remove the maximum amount of heat and use completely heat transfer of the radiator. As a rule, the feed is on top, and the return from below. When using a special headset, it is possible to connect from the bottom. This allows you to hide pipelines as much as possible, but reduces the heat transfer of the radiator by 20. 30%.
The connection of the radiator diagonal. The feed is on one side of the device from above, the return on the other side below. This type of connection is used in cases where the length of the sectional radiator exceeds 12 sections, and a panel 1200 mm. When installing long radiators with a side connection, there is an uneven heating of the radiator surface in the most remote part of the part. So that the radiator warms up evenly, the diagonal connection is used.
Connection from the bottom of the device. Feed and return are located at the bottom of the radiator. This connection is used for the most hidden installation of pipelines. When installing a sectional heating device and connecting it in the lower way, the supply pipeline is suitable on one side of the radiator, and the reverse on the other side of the lower pipe. However, the efficiency of heat transfer of radiators with this scheme is reduced by 15-20%.
In the case when the lower connection is used for a steel panel radiator, then all the pipes on the radiator are in the lower end. The design of the radiator itself is made in such a way that the feed enters the collector first to the upper part, and then the return is assembled in the lower collector of the radiator, thereby the heat transfer of the radiator does not decrease.