Determine the temperature in the room
Determine the temperature level in the room can be two ways. using standard regulations, or guided by your own preferences.
The temperature is measured in three places. on the floor, at a height of 50 cm and 150 cm. At a height of 150 cm should not be less than 18 degrees, the maximum should be determined individually. The level of heating of the floor surface should not exceed 40 degrees. The allowable temperature difference in different rooms is 10 degrees.
How to choose a floor heating? Precise calculation
Recently very few people heard about warm floors, but now they are already in many apartments, and every day are becoming more and more popular. Who at least once felt the pleasure of walking on the heated tile or laminate, certainly tries to choose and install this equipment and at home. It nicely complements, and in some cases even displaces other heating devices. For example, if the children’s room is cool, parents often choose not to use an oil radiator, preferring to install underfloor heating. Indeed, they have a lot of advantages. Let’s list the main ones.
- Bring health benefits. Underfloor heating protects against draughts and is a good prophylactic against colds. All the more necessary if you have a child in the house. After all, the baby is constantly running around barefoot or playing, sitting on the floor. It is important to take care of a favorable environment for it.
- Offer optimum comfort. Many other heaters generate a directional flow of heat. So it’s stuffy to sit next to, but cold to sit far away. Only the use of underfloor heating creates the most pleasant temperature distribution for humans in the room: 26 degrees at the feet, 23 degrees in the torso, 20 degrees at head level. By the way, this heating system does not dry the air You will be easy and pleasant to breathe.
- Save money. The equipment consumes no more energy than an electric convector or radiator, and warms up more efficiently. Yes, the initial costs will be a little more because of the need to install the floor, but it will last 15-20 years. Once installed and order.
- Fit perfectly into the interior. Not a centimeter of usable room space is lost. Heating devices are not visible, they are hidden under tiles, linoleum or laminate. Your guests will be surprised that it is so warm and cozy in the apartment, although there seems to be no heater.
Heat loss what it is and where to get them
Calculation of underfloor heating is done for each room in which it will be laid. It is based on the fact that you know the heat loss of the house as a whole, and in each room specifically. Heat loss is the amount of heat that needs to be recovered to maintain a certain/desired temperature. Heat loss depends on the thickness and material of the walls, on the type of windows / doors, on how the floor is made, the heated room below or not, what kind of ceiling, attic, how it is insulated. In general, there are a lot of criteria. All this is taken into account in the thermotechnical calculation.
The amount of heat required to maintain the correct temperature depends very much on the material of the outer walls and thermal insulation
Thermo-technical calculations can be done independently (there are a sufficient number of calculators, methods), you can order in a construction company. For approximate estimation you can use the average norms. It is believed that to heat one square meter in the middle belt of Russia requires 100 W per square meter of area. This is assuming that the insulation is average, the ceiling height of 2.2-2.7 m, exterior walls are not more than two.
Approximate heat losses for different construction technologies
If the insulation is lower than average or the ceilings are higher, the region is more northern, these indicators lead to increased heat loss. Accordingly, by contrast, the less severe winters and better insulation, the less heat is needed. Having thus corrected the norm, you can make more or less accurate calculation of floor heating, but it is always better to take with the reserve in order not to freeze.
How to calculate electric underfloor heating. expert tips
Underfloor heating in the house. it is a guarantee of health for the whole family. Today there is a huge variety of types of heating. The most effective and popular is electric underfloor heating, which is easy to calculate and install. This method is very simple and economical to use, the principle is to heat the floor from a special heating cable, which is placed under the floor surface during installation.
The heating device is placed so that the entire surface receives the same amount of heat, and the owner has the ability to regulate the power of heating. Today you have the opportunity to learn about how to calculate the floor heating, make its installation and prepare the necessary materials.
About film heaters
Calculation of the amount of infrared film is much easier and comes down to the selection of heating material in size and specific heat:
- Calculate the need for thermal energy in the room (section one of this publication).
- Sketch a room plan with fixed furniture. Calculate size and square footage of free area.
- The film floor heating is laid with 15-20 cm distance from the walls. Draw these strips on a sketch and subtract their size from the free area.
- The last task is to place the required total power of the infrared film on the remaining area. Choose from the manufacturer’s catalogs the right roll width and heat output.
Help. The film of the well-known brand Caleo is capable of giving from 130 to 230 watts per 1 m² of heating element. Width. 50, 80 and 100 cm.
Please note that the thermal film may only be cut crosswise, guided by the special lines (interval. 250 mm). Adjacent strips can be laid against each other or at a calculated interval, but not overlapping. For the bedroom in our example, the amount of film is calculated as follows:
- Required heat output of the floor circuit. 1.08 kW. If you get a product with a heat output of 130 W/m², you need 1080 / 130 = 8.3 m² of film heater. Subject to the reserve. 9 m².
- The width of the roll. 0.5 m. To gain 9 squares, you need to take a film length of 18 m.
- Since there is 15 square meters of free space in the bedroom, this type of heater is quite suitable.
How to calculate water and electric underfloor heating yourself
Installation of floor heating in an apartment or private home begins with calculations. Pipes or heating cables must be selected according to their specific heat output and laid with a certain pitch. Practice shows: you can not rely entirely on the experience of hired builders, the scheme of laying is better to develop their own. How to calculate electric and water floor heating with the available methods, is told in the following instructions.
Calculation of the energy costs of electric floors depending on the type of room
There are certain standards, according to which for each room a device of its power is recommended:
In addition, the power of the system affects its purpose. will it be the main or supplementary heating.
For example, if the floor heating is the main source of heat in a room with an area of 20 m2, with a usable area of 8 m2, the heat loss will be 2 kW / hour. Based on these data, the capacity is calculated:
If you live in a region with a harsh climate, it is worth adding 25%.
Boiler types, their pros and cons
There are different devices for heating the coolant. They differ in the type of fuel on which they operate: diesel, solid fuel, gas, electric.
In addition, the boilers differ in the way of installation. hang on the wall or mounted on the floor.
Floor standing boilers are more powerful, and wall mounted boilers are more convenient to place and less expensive.
Diesel fuel is used for the operation of these systems. They are efficient, have a high efficiency with a minimum consumption of diesel. They are easy to connect and maintain.
Solid fuel boilers
As fuel for such boilers firewood or pellets are used. On the principle of work they are similar to an ordinary stove, but here the combustion of wood takes place under the influence of high temperature. 250 degrees, and there is no air access.
The liquid is heated by hot smoke, which is released in the process of burning fuel.
In apartments, they are installed rarely, their main use. production or private homes. The plus side. the low price and ease of use.
According to the name, it is clear that these devices work on gas. Their body is usually made of steel or cast iron, it directly determines how long the unit will serve, and the peculiarities of its installation.
Boilers made of steel are lighter than those made of cast iron, they are compact, not difficult to repair, but their service life is short. Cast-iron lasts longer, they are reliable, economical, works on any gas. main or liquefied, but their price is higher.
It should be said that for the heating system “warm water floor” they are not suitable, since they can maintain water temperatures in the range of 80 gr. For hydropoles, the coolant must be heated to only 45 degrees, thereby reducing the efficiency of the unit.
But if you supplement the design with a mixing unit, the boiler can be used in hydrofoils.
Electric boilers are powered by electricity. For underfloor heating. it is the best option, as they are able to heat the liquid to the level required for trouble-free and economical operation of the underfloor heating, and are easy to connect. Plus, they do not lose their ability to function in the case of prolonged disconnection (more than six months).
Their disadvantage is that they are expensive to operate, they are energy dependent, they cannot function in the absence of electricity.
- Heating elements. the easiest, proven in operation, that’s why they are often installed in water systems. Have a tubular heater. it is reliable, its efficiency reaches 98%. Power of the devices ranges from 2 to 60 kW, operate from a single-phase or three-phase network. Teen devices are available in one and two circuits:
- Single-circuit. these mini boilers heat only the coolant, for their fuller application requires another boiler and heat exchanger.
- Double-circuit devices not only heat water, but are also used for heating, they have a built-in boiler and heat exchanger, but the cost is higher.
Electrode. suitable for underfloor heating. They are compact, durable, with high efficiency, have an affordable price. Their feature. only antifreeze is used as a coolant.
The principle of their work is different. by the resistance of positive and negative electrodes, the coolant is heated rapidly.
Induction. technologically advanced electric boilers for underfloor heating. They are designed so that they consume minimum energy resources, with high efficiency and long service life (30 years). Can provide simultaneous operation of water floors and radiator type heating.
These devices are automated, reliable, quiet and work with any coolant. They do not need a chimney or a separate room for placement.
When working, emit electromagnetic waves, so contact with them will not lead to burns.
Reaching operating mode is quick. But their cost is higher than that of other electric types.
Electric floor heating power consumption. How many kW per month?
When you have decided that you definitely will install a floor heating system, you need to calculate how many kW of energy will consume such heating. It can be made independently without resorting to the services of specialists.
Underfloor heating, made of different heating elements, have different power consumption.
The power of the above types of floor heating is as follows:
- Electric heating cable. 0,01-0,06 kW/m. One square meter, on average, requires five coils.But here much depends exactly on the pitch of the installation.
On average, the output of underfloor heating is between 0.1 and 0.2 kW/m2. This information can always be found on the box or label of the product.
Selecting the minimum or maximum power, you can choose. The floor heating will be your main heating system or an additional.
Basic. If you have a holiday home with no central heating system, or if you have a high-rise apartment with constantly bad radiators.
First of all remember that the electric floor will “eat” electricity, based on the conditions of the laying (the thickness of the screed, heat loss, insulation), but not as much as managers promised you oathfully in the store.
To calculate the costs of electricity let’s use the following formula:
The power of element of a warm floor we take the maximum for not very well warmed house 0,2 kw/m2. It is better to know your marginal costs first.
If your house is like a “thermos” and you are losing heat all right, you don’t have to use a very powerful thermo-mat. Calculate an average value of 0.1-0.15 kW/m2.
It is conventionally accepted to use the following capacities for different heated rooms:
The total area of the bedroom, where the floor will be laid. 20m2. Applying the formula, we get:
So per hour, your underfloor heating will consume 1.6 kW.
Turn on such heating mainly for 7-10 hours a day. С 17.00 to 24.00. after you get home from work, before you go to bed. And sometimes in the morning from 5.00 to 8.00. But the schedule with special devices, which will be described below, you can easily set yourself.
So, the consumption per day for 10 hours is 16 kW. The total for a month of use of underfloor heating is 480 kW. It is only in one room.
But do not be alarmed, such bills can come only if:
And how do you know if the heat from the electric floor is enough to heat the whole room and the house?? This requires you to calculate your heat loss. Of course, in each case all individually, and a lot of factors will affect the error.
However, you can roughly refer to the requirements of SNiP.
And the height of ceilings. Maximum 3 meters, and the walls, floor and everything else must be insulated, again according to SNIP.
Let’s use the same calculation data as before. Room area 20 m2.
Accordingly, on such an area the heat loss will be. 2 kWh
Your task is to overlap the data obtained. That is, you must install mats of a certain capacity and in a certain area so that the final result of such installation was either equal or exceeded the calculated heat loss of the room.
We know that the usable area that can be used for mats or heating cable in the room. 8м2.
On this basis, we calculate what power the floor heating should be enough to heat the room as the primary source of heat.
In this case if you live in a climatic zone where the temperature outside can drop to /- 5 degrees Celsius for a few days, you’ll have to choose the heating cable installation method according to your requirements.30 degrees, it is recommended to add another 25% to this power.
If such a powerful mat or cable is not available, then try to increase the effective laying area and do the calculation again.
What to do to reduce such large numbers and kilowatts of energy consumption?
If you use thermostatic controls, you can easily reduce consumption by 30-40% at once. True, by setting it to the maximum value, no savings will have to talk about. It will work almost without downtime.
True, if the floor heating is the main source of heat in all the rooms, you will have to put them a few pieces in different areas. For example in the bathroom, a heating cable or mats work much longer than in the kitchen or in the hall.
Also, no one limits you in the choice of power heating element of the floor heating. It is not necessary to use the maximum possible wattage.
After calculating the consumption in this way for all rooms, you can easily draw the appropriate conclusions: is this type of heating beneficial or not.
You can find quality thermoregulators, temperature sensors and other accessories from leading companies, as well as current for underfloor heating today, here.
If the floor heating is installed in every room of the apartment, the final amount for electricity can come out very substantial. Is there any way to save and reduce your costs? The answer is Yes, and here’s what you need to do to do it:
1 Insulate your own home or apartment
RadPad Radiant Floor Heating System Sizing Calculator
Almost half of the heat can be lost because of poor-quality insulation of windows and doors.
It should be installed in the coolest place in the room. Heating will independently turn off when it reaches a certain temperature, which you set in advance, and also turn on without your participation, saving energy.
Decreasing the temperature of underfloor heating by 1 degree can save up to about 5% of energy costs.of energy
3 Install a multi-tariff electricity meter
By turning on the floor heating mostly at night, when the rates are lowest, you can save more than a hundred kilowatts per month.
4 Do not install underfloor heating in places where furniture and appliances are located (without feet)
Not only is it inefficient in terms of heating the room, but it is also prohibited by the manufacturers of the floor heating themselves.
Firstly, the heat take-off from the usable surface is drastically reduced. And secondly, it increases the risk of overheating sections of the mat, cable, or pushing the film.
5 A screed that is initially up to 85 mm thick can save you a lot on heating costs in the future
By turning on these floors only at night, they are like an accumulator that draws heat and gives it away until the evening of the next day.