How to fill a radiator with water in an apartment

How to fill a heating system with water

To understand how to fill with water the heating system, which functions on the principle of the bottom filling, you should remember the following algorithm of actions:

  • even before you fill the heating system in a private home, the gate valve on the supply line should be slid, and the discharge should be opened in the supply section;
  • then on the return pipe slowly open the valve. In the case if the speed of water in the heating system at the outlet will be high, then there is a risk of water hammer, which can lead to the most unpleasant consequences, including the detachment of heating batteries;
  • Then wait for the water to run clear of air;
  • then the discharge is shut off and the supply gate valve is opened;
  • After that you must completely deflate all accessed heating areas in the entrance hall, including service rooms.

Ball valves

Valves are cheap, but ineffective regulating devices. At the inlet to the radiator is often installed ball valves, through which regulate the flow of water.

But this equipment also has another function. shut-off valves. Valves are used to completely shut off the flow of water in the system. For example, in the event of a heater leak, ball valves located at the inlet and outlet of the radiator allow for repair without stopping the heat supply and draining the liquid.

Ball valves do not adjust the heating batteries in the apartment. They have only two positions. fully closed and open. Intermediate location brings only harm.

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The fact that inside such a valve there is a ball with a hole, which in the normal position is not a threat, but in all other situations solid particles present in the coolant, it chips off and pieces of it break off. As a result, the tap will not be airtight and in the “closed” position the water will continue to flow into the battery, which is fraught with big trouble in the case of a leaky device.

If any of the property owners all decided to make the management of heating batteries using ball valves, it must be remembered that they should be installed correctly.

This method is usually used in apartment buildings. If the wiring is vertical, then the hot water pipe enters the room through the ceiling and the radiator is connected to it (read: “Proper regulation of radiators in the apartment. comfort in the house and saving money”). Pipeline goes from the second entry to the appliance and through the floor to the room below.

In this case it is necessary to install the valves correctly, since the installation of a bypass is compulsory. Bypass pipe is needed so that when the flow of liquid to the radiator is closed, the heating medium continues to circulate in the common system.

In some situations, the tap is located on the bypass to change the amount of water flowing through it and thereby adjust the heat output of the battery. To ensure greater reliability of the heating system, install at least three taps: two will cut off at the radiator and will function in the normal mode, and the third. will become a regulator.

But here you must not forget in what position the devices are. Otherwise you can completely block the riser and you can not avoid the cold in the apartment, as well as unpleasant showdown with neighbors and representatives of the management company.

Therefore, when deciding how to regulate heat in the radiators, experts do not recommend using ball valves. There are other products on the market that are specifically designed to change the amount of water circulating through the radiator.

How to pour water into the heating system through the expansion tank, that is, from above

So if you have an open system, we take a bucket or a hose, we go upstairs with it to the attic or where the expansion tank is, we take off the lid, we put a large watering can into the reservoir neck or we stick the end of the hose right into the tank. After that we fill up with water. There should be a device on our cistern, usually a simple transparent tube that shows the level of water in the cistern. We must know when to stop! In addition, on the tank, at the very top, there should be an outlet for the excess water. Roughly speaking, this is the tube to which the hose that goes into the drain is connected.

The water should theoretically go down the pipes and fill up the system. But it’s only theoretical. The thing is, the water bubbles up as it goes down. The water compresses the air at the bottom of the system. The air has to get out. The air, again, has to go up. The same pipes that are used to fill up the water. And that’s the big problem. While the water is going down the pipes, the air can’t go up the same pipes. That means we can’t pour it all the time in principle. We can pour the water and then wait. First we have to wait for the bubbles to come out. Then we have to wait for them to stop going. And only then can we pour a new batch of water into the tank. Thus, we fill, as it seems to us, the full system. At least there’s water in the tank and it’s not going anywhere. But believe me, it’s too early to turn on the heat! We have to go to each radiator and bleed each one. Every radiator. It’s an air trap of sorts. There’s nowhere for it to escape from the radiator! And we have to make sure that the water doesn’t quite go out of the tank. After all, if it goes out of there, it will form an empty tube, which means that when you fill them with water, new air cavities will form, bubbles that will have to necessarily come out.

So we go down to the radiators. We have bleeders on the radiators? If there is, it’s good, if not, it gets very complicated and the question of flooding the heating takes on the status of not a big, but a very big problem. We have to unscrew something to flush the water and quite possibly it will not be enough to vent the radiators. But let’s not talk about sad things! Let’s assume that we have on each radiator so-called Maevsky cocks, or valves to release air. We unscrew them one by one and deflate them until the water comes out. As already mentioned, do not forget to pour water into the expansion tank.

Once all radiators are deflated, you can try to start the boiler. If the boiler heats up, but the pipes do not heat up, then we just have to wait. How much? Maybe a day. Or maybe a week. And during this week there may be times when we, like, wake up at night, and we hear the bubble inside our heating system suddenly begins to move up with a characteristic gurgling sound. These are. The charms of an open heating system!

Slope of pipes

In order for the air to escape from the heating system by itself, all pipes must have a slope. Slope towards the expansion tank. The bubbles should rise upwards. Along the flat pipes they will also gradually rise. Only necessary that the pipes have a proper slope and are free of cavities and loops. It is quite possible to lay the pipes in such a way that air will collect in them, which will never come out of them, and therefore there will never be circulation in the system. over, most often in the entire system, or in the entire branch.

But the slope of the pipes is not only important for an open heating system! Unfortunately, other articles about heating are written in such a way that it seems that in a closed system the slope is unimportant and unnecessary. It is not! You always need a slope in a heating system. And where the slope should be in a closed system? There’s no open expansion tank at the highest point!

The slope of the pipes in a closed heating system must be exactly the same as in the open. Ideally, the pipes should rise steeply from the boiler to the highest point, and then gently descend to the last, farthest radiator. At the highest point should be installed a valve to release air. When draining the water from the heating system, there should not be any stagnant water at any point of the system. It has to pour out completely, by gravity. And that’s also due to the slope of the pipes.


How to shut off the radiator correctly if it gets hot

You need to close the radiators when turning off the heating in the summer, before the heating season to repair or replace radiators, as well as when it is hot in the apartment. We are interested in the question of how to properly shut off the radiator if it is hot in the room. It is easy to do this if you have an ingenious device called a bypass-jumper between the supply and return pipes, often equipped with shutoff valves and a heat regulator. Zealous owners of apartments provide an opportunity to shut off the water and arrange a bypass during the installation of heating devices.

Bypass allows you to make repairs even in winter when the system is circulating hot water. It is enough to close the tap in front of the radiator, the hot water stops coming, and the circulation is routed through the bypass. Thus you will not need to go down into the basement for temporary overlapping of the system, to create inconvenience to the neighbors, because you will need to turn off the riser for the entire time of repair work. The best solution is to install an additional shut-off valve at the entrance to the heating system of the apartment.

Attention ! To prevent corrosion the system must always be filled with water, therefore when replacing pipes and batteries the water has to be shut off. In winter, precautions should be taken to avoid burns from hot water.

Causes and signs of air s in the heating system

Occurrence of air corks inside the radiators, first of all, is connected with the start of the heating system at the beginning of the heating season and at the end of its overhaul. But practice shows that bloating can occur during intensive operation of the heating network. There are several reasons for this:

  • Unplanned repair work (assembly and disassembly) of elements of the heating system;
  • overheating of the coolant, resulting in the release of gases that will suffocate the radiators;
  • Use of contaminated coolant with air impurities;
  • Pouring additional water into the system;
  • joints of the elements of radiators and pipelines begin to leak water;
  • The installation of the heating system does not respect the level of the radiator manifolds;
  • lack of automatic air bleeding;
  • Rust clogged internal passages in the radiators;
  • Low pressure in the hot water pipes.
  • Tactilely feel the cold spots on the surface of the radiator;
  • Temperature in the premises is dropping;
  • In autonomous heating systems, an increase in fuel consumption becomes noticeable;
  • Sound of bubbling and gurgling fluid can be heard in the radiators.

How to determine the indicators of hot water?

Hot water supply and heating system are directly interconnected. Water temperature is the same in both cases.

On the basis of SNiP 2.08.01.In residential buildings the hot water temperature must range from 50 to 70°C, which is the average norm for water in radiators (assuming that the thermometer reading is not below 10-15°C outside).

How To Easily Bleed A Radiator

The process of measuring is exactly the same as determining the temperature of water in the radiators, but there is one nuance. After you open the tap you need to wait for 3-5 minutes, and then the water will pour, which has a real temperature.

Materials and tools required for installation

The proper installation of heating radiators by the owner himself will require a special tool and certain consumables. As for the first and the second, their type and size depend on the selected models of heating devices, the way they are connected, etc. In any case, the installation of radiators will necessarily require the necessary set of tools and materials.

Tools and Devices

Since all radiators, except for floor devices, are attached to the walls, it will be necessary to be armed with the following:

  • a hammer;
  • Drill screwdriver;
  • Welding machine for polypropylene pipes;
  • hammer;
  • level;
  • tape measure and ruler;
  • marker;
  • wrench and pipe wrench;
  • end wrench for assembling the sections.
  • cord or winding for threaded connections;
  • sealant.

RADIATORS EXPLAINED How to fix balance bleed panel radiator How radiators work flow & return valves


Usually the firm-manufacturer for their radiators supply mounting kits for both assembly and connection of the radiators, and for hanging them on the walls. In these kits you will find the minimum necessary kit for installation consisting of:


They may be present in the delivery set of the radiators. If they are not available, you can purchase the necessary fasteners at your local hardware store.

There are many different in design and shape supports for radiators, but what they all have in common is high load-bearing capacity and transfer of the load from the radiator weight to the wall. Brackets can be strictly fixed structures and with adjustment mechanisms, both in length and height.

Mayevsky cock or automatic air vent

In the process of the coolant flowing through the heating system, the air trapped by it enters the radiators. This usually happens when you start the heating system at the end of the warm season. Air plugs, if not removed, hold back the passage of hot water in the upper manifold of the battery, and it will remain cold.

Initially, the top of the radiators installed the usual water taps. Bleeding them was accompanied by an eruption of large amounts of water. All modern heating radiators are equipped with Meyevsky taps or have air vents screwed into them.

The Mevsky valve is a small device that is screwed into a free opening on one side of the upper manifold. If the diameter of the tap differs from the size of the threaded inlet to the manifold, special adapters are used. Wrap a sealant around the threads of the device. Using a wrench carefully screw in the faucet until it stops.

Drain the air by loosening the screw or the handle. Turning the ring changes the direction of airflow. Air is discharged until a continuous stream of water. In apartment buildings, it is important to vent the radiators on the upper floors.

The operation of the automatic air vent, based on the principle of the float. The float under air pressure presses the nipple, which opens until the complete removal of air cork from the radiator.

Automats, according to the reviews of experts, are quite capricious devices and do not tolerate the contaminated coolant. Over time, the automatic air vent, installed in a centralized heating system, begins to leak. Therefore, it is recommended to use them in autonomous heating of private homes, where clean coolant is used.


The versatility of heating batteries with side connection is that there are 4 outlets. two each on the lower and upper collector. Two of these are occupied by the flow and return pipes, depending on the connection diagram.

Install a Mayevsky cock or automatic air vent in the third hole. There is a fourth hole, which is “stifled” with a threaded plug (stopper). It is screwed into the manifold hole using a wrench with a winding screwed on the thread (oakum, sealing cord or tape).

Stop valve

Stop valves for heating radiators are three types of valves.

Ball valves. Used in two extreme positions: “closed” or “open”. They are installed at the inlet and outlet of the radiator. The role of a stop valve is a rotating metal ball with a through hole. Turning it with the outside lever one can achieve full opening or closing of the heating medium flow.

Rods. This is the traditional scheme of shutting off the flow by a movable stem on the same axis as the swivel head. In contrast to the ball device with a rod valve varies the speed of passage of hot water, therefore, regulate the degree of heating of the radiator.

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Check valve. A valve with a check valve cuts off the outflow of the coolant in a certain area of the heating system. They are rarely used in centralized heating systems. They are most often used in particularly complex stand-alone heating systems.

Whether or not to shut off the radiators before the flushing and summer?

After installing brand new heating radiators for a pretty penny, many people want to extend their service life and not to lose heat output, not to allow clogging with dirt. New radiators, unlike the old cast-iron radiators have shutoff valves that can be shut off. The question immediately arises, to overlap or not?

To answer this question, it is desirable to know whether you have a bona fide housing office or not. Namely, whether it keeps the system filled with water when the heating is off or not.

The main enemy of metal is corrosion. It appears less when the system is dry or when it is completely filled with water, without air access. Moisture and oxygen is a breeding ground for destruction. According to regulations, the system should always be filled with water, but many management companies ignore this. Firstly, during repairs, the system has to be drained, and then filled, wasting time. Secondly, the water is now metered and the real money. If during the summer 10 people in the house decide to change or repair the radiators, the system will have to be drained and filled 10 times and it’s good if you can drain the individual risers and not the whole house at once, as in my case for example. That’s the sin of some companies that in the summer the tubes are not filled with water at all. Naturally closed system can not dry out and there remains moisture. As already said air and moisture is a great catalyst for corrosion.

So if your management company is not conscientious, on the eve of the end of the heating season, it is better to shut off the cutoffs. You can do this if the coolant can bypass the radiators (in the riser pipe or through the bridge). About this below. Additionally open the faucet to release air. to get rid of excess pressure that occurs due to temperature differences or the chemical reaction of metal with the coolant, with not good quality of the metal and (or) the coolant. The main thing this faucet, properly it is called a Mayevsky faucet, then do not forget to close.

To check whether the company is bona fide or not, you can several times during the summer. To do this, open the top valve and the faucet to drain the air. If water is pressurized through the faucet or first air then water, there is water in the system. At the same time, the bottom valve that remains closed will not let water out of your radiator if the system is not filled.

Logically the question arises why at all, what is there to check?? It is better to shut off and that’s it. It turns out not always.

If you have a jumper next to the radiator, you can shut off the cutoffs and not watch whether there is water in the system or not.

If all the coolant goes through the radiator, and there is no jumper, you can never shut off the radiators.

If the riser goes through your apartment, and there is no crosspieces near the radiators, then with closed-off isolators and conscientious company that fills the system with water in the summer, airlocks can form in your pipes from the riser to the radiator. The same air and moisture. So if the management company tends to keep the system filled with water, the cutoffs can be kept open. This can help avoid the formation of air s when filling.

As for closing or not to close the radiators during flushing the heating system, if the radiators are new, used for the first 1-2 years. close the radiators. You will get more dirt than you can scrub. Ideally you should open them the day after turning on the heating in the house, after the main dirt is gone. Once every 1-2 years it is advisable to take radiators off and flush them yourself with hot water. Paying close attention to each radiator is obviously better than flushing the system altogether. Fortunately it is not a cast-iron radiator. They are perfectly removable and you can wash them with a shower hose, twisting the shower head off and removing the gasket so it doesn’t get inside.

Before removing, remember to cover the cutoffs and lay a cloth on the floor, or better yet, a thick film and a rag on top. Radiators can leak a natural black sludge that is difficult to clean off the floor. You should also put them in the bathroom. To protect against damage and heavy dirt. In general as to whether to cover the radiators or not one should be guided by logic: Radiators of heating (batteries) should be constantly filled with water. There is no need to expose them to excessive pressure that can occur if you close them tightly. So leave the top shutoff open with the bottom one closed, or shut off both shutoffs and open the Mayevsky valve. Provided that your overlapped radiator does not disrupt the circulation throughout the riser. It’s written above.

The question, whether or not to shut off bimetallic radiators in the summer, is similar to the question, whether or not to shut off aluminum radiators in the summer. What I wrote above is true for both types. The difference is that bimetallic radiators can withstand more pressure, and they are less likely to release gas when metal interacts with the coolant. Despite this, the rules must be observed for them too.

Operating the batteries in summer: shut off or not?

Modern radiators differ significantly from their cast iron predecessors in appearance. They have shutoff valves that allow you to regulate the flow of water to them, allowing you to control the temperature in the room. To increase the life of the heating system and avoid clogging, you should operate it properly.

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