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There are several varieties of boiler equipment that differs, first of all, by the type of fuel used. The most popular were:
Despite the fact that in recent years, almost widespread gasification is held, equipment operating on gas is still rarely installed in rural areas. The main area of its application is city apartments and suburban cottages close in comfort to the conditions of the metropolis. Solid fuel equipment is more often installed in villages. Wood, pellet or coal boiler.
The most important advantage that is distinguished by a solid fuel (singing or wood) heating boiler is cheapness and ease of operation. In the village of firewood, to this day, the cheapest fuel remains, and the probability of gas to the remote corners of the country remains almost in the field of fiction.
The electric heating boiler has a lot of advantages, but all of them overlaps one significant minus. High operational value. In some way, the disadvantages of equipment can also be considered:
- The energy dependence of the system. Disabling electricity will lead to negative consequences for the entire heating network, and not just for the device itself. To minimize the risk of defrosting the system in the event of a power outage, an additional installation of an emergency generator will be required.
- The power supply should be capable of withstanding a substantially increasing load. An additional line may be required. It will be necessary to install a separate machine.
- The connection of the device must be carried out by a qualified electrician. Unprofessional installation is life.Threatening.
On the principle of operation, electrode and heating electric boilers are distinguished. We will not dwell on the first, since it is extremely difficult to construct and mount such a device. Consider in more detail the het devices.
Heating in such a boiler is carried out in a tubular heater. From it, heat is transmitted to the coolant circulating in the system. As a coolant, you can download water or antifreeze.
What is a solid fuel boiler
Solid fuel boilers are effective heating systems that produce thermal energy by burning wood, black and brown coal, as well as the briquettes of TOA or COCS. Typically, they are used to heat the premises and provide hot water supply to residential or industrial buildings located in non.Gorged areas. On sale you can find models that can work on all types of solid fuel or only on one. The latter are distinguished by a higher useful action coefficient.
The classic heater is a modular design. It is a complex device and consists of several parts placed in a common building. Most often, for its manufacture, heat.Resistant or boiler sheets of metal are chosen, for example, steel or cast.Iron.
The main elements of this installation are considered:
- Heat exchanger is one of the most important details of the system. It is he who transfers thermal energy inside the boiler using heated flue gas, whose speed of passage to the coolant is regulated. Heat exchangers are able to last about 20 years. Typically, for their manufacture, materials such as steel or cast iron are used. When choosing a part, it is worth considering that buying a steel element will cost cheaper, but it will quickly worn out and will fail. Cast iron heat exchanger is durable and resistant to corrosion formation.
- The furnace chamber equipped with a door is designed to download fuel. In it, its burning.
- The grate should have thermal and corrosion stability, so it is created from the alloy of gray cast iron (graphite) and iron. This element contributes to the uniform distribution of fuel, the wrapping of its residues into the ash and provides the air circulation in the firebox necessary for the combustion process.
- The thermostat is necessary to automate the operation of the system. It performs protective functions, as it controls the heating of the coolant and prevents the appearance of problems that may occur due to too high temperature. This device can be automatic or mechanical.
- Ash. Combustion products accumulate in it.
4 stage mono tube boiler build High output
For safe and comfortable operation of the heating installation, it is often equipped with additional elements, for example, a gas burner for fuel ignition, a special valve for protection against overheating, traction regulator, etc.D.
Principle of operation
Most boilers of this type work on the principle of upper burning.
The installation start process occurs in the following sequence:
- Fuel is placed in a combustion chamber on a grate.
- Firewood or coal set fire to and close the loading door.
- Open the damper on the chimney and due to the difference in pressure begins the air supply to the device.
Due to the fact that oxygen penetrates into the furnace from top to bottom, only the upper part of the fuel will burn. As the firewood burned, the fire will gradually sink, covering the lower layer. Thanks to this technology, it will be possible to control the process and save firewood economically, because due to this approach they will burn for a very long time.
If fireproof and corrosion.Resistant materials were used to manufacture the device, then the resulting installation will have high efficiency and perfectly isolate heat, and will also be released not only economical, but also safe.
Solid fuel boilers allow you to provide heat in such buildings that cannot be equipped with gas and electrical heating systems.
The advantages of these useful devices include:
- Economy. High.Quality solid fuel unit is characterized by a slow flow rate of firewood and coal. Such installation requires less costs than systems operating on electricity or gas.
- Environmental friendliness. Experts say that such boilers practically do not cause damage to the environment, and firewood are considered a renewable resource.
- Simplicity of design and lack of difficulties in operation provide a long and non.Resistant installation service. Therefore, it is possible to collect such an apparatus with their own hands even to beginner masters, if they carefully consider the plan for installing parts and acquire a detailed manufacturing scheme.
- Accessibility and variability. Most devices of this type work perfectly on any solid fuel, and its choice depends only on the preferences of the owner. Thus, to provide a dwelling with warmth, you can use firewood, then chips, coal, and in some cases even dry manure.
- Autonomy. The work of these boilers does not depend on the interruptions in gas and electricity. If the fuel suddenly ends, you can always dial the chips or cut down a few branches right on your site.
- Low cost of the installation itself.
- A wide range of different models.
- Ease of installation and lack of requirements for equipping the boiler room.
Despite the large number of advantages, it is recommended to carefully read the capabilities and technical characteristics of the device. This will help make the right choice.
A large selection of various models makes the purchase of solid fuel boilers available to consumers with different income.
However, like other products, these devices, in addition to advantages, have their disadvantages:
- To accommodate and storage of fuel, the owner will have to equip a pantry or additional construction.
- Cheap options are not as convenient to use as more expensive. They will have to be cleaned more often from soot and soot.
- In order for the combustion of fuel to be accompanied by the maximum efficiency, you will have to follow special rules.
- Any models require manual loading of furnace.
- Prolonged combustion devices most often have a low (about 70%) efficiency coefficient.
- You will have to install parts for forced traction if there are difficulties with the removal of combustion products to the outside.
Types of boilers on wood
Such units are automatic and manual fuel loading. The second type of equipment works on pellets. They are placed in a special bunker, then they are fed to the furnace. The boiler is capable of operating in automatic mode for a long period.
Electric equipment is connected to the device if desired, which allows you to minimize the participation of people in the heating process. Devices function in parallel, while the electric boiler maintains a certain temperature of the water.
There is an alternative option. The use of heat accumulator. It involves the operation of the heat supply system in automatic mode, in which the heat consumed at night accumulates during the day in a special container.
There are three types of firewood units with manual loading:
- Traditional, with a standard design, which has a top chamber below. Such boilers are distinguished by the complexity of service.
- Pyrolysis. This equipment operates on the basis of the principle of separation of firewood into gaseous and solids. The pyrolysis devices have a lot of advantages: a fairly high efficiency, a small amount of soot and ash. They work on wood, in which humidity does not exceed 20%.
- Long burning. In such boilers, the upper part burns in firewood, and the remaining fuel begins to smolder slowly. Homemade boilers of long burning on wood are distinguished by a high level of efficiency and the ability to adjust the power consumed. The device requires one.Time service per day.
If it is not possible to find the finished supply block of the granules, then instead of a pellet firebox, you can build a home.Made boiler that burns the gases of pyrolysis of solid fuel. The device of such an unit is easier than that of a pellet. In fact, the device consists of two chambers. A bunker for fuel material and the burning chamber of pyrolysis gases.
Dried firewood (humidity is not more than 40%) are used as fuel material). Typically, one laying of solid fuel is enough for the boiler during the day.
The advantage of a pyrolysis boiler is efficiency. If you correctly configure the air supply to the pyrolysis block, then you can adjust the thermal power from a minimum of 30% to 100-110% of the calculated heat transfer.
Possible difficulties in the manufacture of home.Made pyrolysis furnace:
- High combustion temperature, sometimes reaches 1100-1200 OS. Therefore, for the firebox, you need to use heat.Resistant steel and shame;
- In the pyrolysis chamber, combustible gases containing hydrogen, steam, carbon monoxide and decay products of resins are formed. Therefore, the quality of the welding seams of the pyrolysis block should be very high, not to mention the tight fit of the loading hatch;
- Heat.Resistant stainless steel is poorly welded. Therefore, knowledge, practice, equipment for welding alloy steels are needed.
It makes sense to build a home.Made pyrolysis boiler, if only because it is one of the most economical and environmentally friendly ways of burning solid fuel. Heating of a private house will cost at least 30% cheaper than in the case of using pellets.
As a conclusion
The described boilers are used not only for heating houses, but also with winter heating of the tricks, sheds, greenhouses, etc. D. If the assembly and installation work was carried out correctly, then the device will operate economically and absolutely safe, and solid fuel of any type can be used, including household garbage.
In addition, the boilers do not need constant control, it is only necessary in practice to determine the period of time between loading. At the same time, it is worth remembering that the combustion time depends not only on the volume of the structure, but also on the type of fuel.
Types of heating boilers and the possibility of their independent manufacture
The task of the heating boiler is to heat the coolant with any fuel and transfer it to the heating system, which already distributes heat to consumers. It is by the type of fuel that boilers used are divided into several large classes. Consider these classes and immediately determine the expediency of their own manufacturing.
- Gas heating boilers. At present. This is the most economically profitable type of fuel. Modern gas boilers have high efficiency, easily controlled, work without human intervention. Self.Manufacture of gas boilers is possible. But categorically not recommended. Firstly, due to the fact that gas is a dangerous type of fuel and any unauthorized intervention can lead to sad consequences, and, secondly, no gas supplying organization will give permission to operate a home-made gas boiler. And he will do the right thing.
- Liquid fuel boilers are used where there is no gasification and other types of fuel. These boilers have a very high efficiency. They are easily amenable to automation, but their use is associated with certain difficulties in storing large amounts of fuel: diesel fuel or fuel oil. Self.Manufacture of liquid.Fuel boilers is prohibited, no fire inspector will put his signature when putting the house into operation if it is equipped with not certified equipment. And, probably, few people want to live on a powder barrel.
- Electric heating boilers have a clear advantage over everyone else in the simplicity of their design, small overall dimensions, and the convenience of control. These boilers are relatively easy to do on your own. But all these advantages are leveled by high for electricity. Unfortunately, electricity heating is economically unprofitable. It is understandable, because a significant part of electricity is obtained by burning hydrocarbon fuel. Another significant restriction is that not always power supply organizations will give permission to allocate high power.
- Solid fuel heating boilers, despite the assurances of skeptics about their imminent fare into the background, continue to work successfully to this day. Not only that. They experience a real second birth. Firewood, stone coal, toe briquettes, combustible shales and other types of solid fuel are used as fuel. Very interesting boilers that use a special kind of fuel. Pellets. Made from wood waste. These boilers are automated, have high efficiency. But the production and logistics of Pellet is still at the infancy. For self.Manufacture, precisely solid fuel boilers are most suitable, so we will consider them. But one of the representatives of solid fuel boilers is worthy of special attention. Pyrolysis.
Solid fuel pyrolysis heating boilers
Classic solid fuel boiler is a capacity of a certain volume. Made of metal: steel or cast iron. It combines solid fuel, while the thermal energy transmitted by the coolant is released using heat exchangers. At the same time, external air is constantly supplied to the combustion chamber to maintain fuel combustion. If you cover the air supply, then the combustion process will slow down, and if you open, it will go faster this is how the power of classic solid fuel boilers regulates this.
There are boilers adapted only for a certain type of fuel: firewood, coal, pellets But there are models that work on any fuel. Solid fuel boilers can be both with natural thrust and forced. The efficiency of a well.Designed and performed classic solid fuel boiler can reach 71–79%.
- Accessibility and low.Tse on fuel.
- The ability to use several types of fuel.
- The ability to burn woodworking production and agricultural processing.
- Complete autonomy of work, independence from electricity.
However, classic solid fuel boilers have a number of shortcomings that cannot be considered:
- On one fuel load, the boilers operate no more than 4-6 hours.
- The need to store large fuel reserves requires additional areas.
- The load mainly occurs in manual mode.
- Classic solid fuel boilers require constant cleaning of combustion products.
- The process C from the city is inertia, it is difficult to control.
In the category of solid fuel boilers, it is worth highlighting the so.Called pyrolysis boilers, the work of which occurs due to separate combustion of fuel and decay products. Pyrolysis gases in a separate group. Consider the work of such a boiler with an example.
Device and principle of operation of a pyrolysis boiler
Fuel (this is most often firewood) through the upper boot door is loaded into the gas. The chimney throttle is completely opened and firewood is set on fire. In this case, they turn on the fan that supplies the air in the chamber. Naturally, firewood begins to burn as in a regular solid fuel boiler.
After the firewood flared up, close the upper door and block the chimney throttle. The air continues to flow to the fuel, but in a limited amount, so I start firewood at a temperature of 200 to 800 ° C. Under these conditions, a pyrolysis reaction occurs: the decomposition of wood to a hard part in the form of coal and light. Pyrolysis gases, which are supplied through the nozzle in the burning chamber. The heated mixture is supplied through the secondary air supply channel. At high temperatures, pyrolysis gases are ignited and oxidized by the supplied air. The temperature of their combustion is about 1100 ° C.
Redeled gases pass through multiple chimney channels, which are in the environment of the heating system. Water. Thermal energy is transmitted. High temperature in the burning chamber supports the process of pyrolysis in the gasifying chamber. If it is necessary to report firewood in the gasifying chamber, then for this they completely open the chimney throttle, wait a few minutes so that the camera is ventilated from pyrolysis gases and the usual combustion process begins. After that, the door is opened, firewood is reported, the door and chimney are closed. The process of pyrolysis and burning gases in the lower chamber is resumed.
Budget autoclave on wood
Nowadays, one of the popular and cheap types of boilers for manufacturing at home is solid fuel. They are made for summer cottages or private houses.
Should start from the preparation of the necessary elements. First of all, pick up a pipe with thick walls with a heating chamber height and weld a bolt.
Next, from a sheet of metal, make a circle a little larger than the cross.Section of the pipe. Then drill a gap in it for the desired bolt. Follow the pipe and screw, tighten the nut tightly.
At the same time, not forgetting that the duct is easy to cover with metal, so that it is possible to change the size of the connector and adjust the power of combustion of fuel.
The second stage is the manufacture of the case. On the gas cylinder, the top is removed and the cylinder from metal sheets is attached. The pipe is attached to the side of 15 cm. This is a chimney.
At another stage, a disk is made that disperses heat. Cut the circle less from sheet metal and attach the handle to the case. Then you need to combine the boiler and casing. At the last stage, steel legs are welded for a better circulation of air.
Installation of pyrolysis boilers
When installing a heating system, it must be remembered that pyrolysis boilers cannot be placed in residential premises, except for a potential hazard for health, non.Compliance with this requirement also threatens a fine from the relevant services. Therefore, the arrangement of the boiler room should be puzzled in advance. With the self.Installation of the boiler, it is necessary to comply with the fire safety rules:
- Observe the distance to the walls of the boiler room (at least 30 cm);
- Equip a non.Combustible foundation (concrete or asbestos), not related to the main coating of the boiler room;
- Ensure a good ventilation system of the boiler room, t. To. For a good pyrolysis, a flow of fresh air is needed;
- Hard the chimney (for example, wrap with mineral wool and foil) to avoid fire to fire the roof of the boiler room;
Connection scheme for solid fuel boilers without the use of circulation pumps
Adhering to these simple rules, you will not only avoid troubles, but also ensure the quality work of your pyrolysis boiler collected by yourself.
Making a home.Made induction heating boiler
From the point of view of the complexity of manufacture, this heating boiler is even simpler, but needs a special device-an inverter with an output signal that has a frequency of 20-50 kHz. For home masters, this did not become an obstacle, as such a device they began to successfully use a welding inverter or even a simple inexpensive household induction plate.
How to make water heater 1minute homemade
The heat engineering scheme of such an unit is not complex: the source of the current inverter, a vessel for heating water with pipes to the input and output of the circulation coolant and the tube system with heating devices.
To protect against overheating, thermal attires and thermal controllers are installed, which transmit an electric signal to a turning automatic machine by current.
The electrical circuit of the functioning of the induction device is more complex, it can be performed independently only if the contractor has appropriate engineering knowledge. Otherwise, it is better to take the electric circuit from the Internet.
Materials for work
To create an induction aggregate on your own will need:
- Polypropylene pipe F 50 mm from polypropylene.
- 2 couplings and adapters from F 50 mm per diameter, which corresponds to heating pipes.
- Pauline for welding plastic pipes.
- Fine.Fiber mesh made of fiberglass or metal.
- Stainless wire F 7 mm.
- Welding inverter with a current of no 15 A that has a smooth load adjustment.
- Copper wire (enamel), 2 mm2 at the rate of 1 mm2 mm per 8 A.
- The wire isolated with the terminal block to turn on the winding to the inverter device.
- Tee for turning on emergency discharge and 2 spherical valves.
- Strips of textolite for fixing wire wire.
- Epoxy glue for insulating the winding.
- The case of the device can be performed by yourself from the tolerant material.
Step.By.Step instructions of the induction boiler with your own hands:
- On a plastic tube of 50 mm with epoxy, I fixed 4 textolite strips of 10 mm, moving away from the edge of the structure by 100 mm and wound a toroidal winding on them to reduce the field of field.
- The extreme turns were fixed in the grooves of the pipe.
- I wound 80 turns of wire with an interval of 0.5 mm.
- I inserted a stainless grid inside the tube and rammed the space with pieces of stainless wire, which will warm up with vortex current.
- Closed the heaters on the other hand with the same net.
- Installed adapters and reinforcement at the ends of the pipe in order to tie the heating system, and at the exit from the boiler installed a safety-disembodied valve.
- I processed the winding with epoxy glue for electrical insulation.
- Attached the conclusions with clamping terminals.
- The second end of the wire through the terminals connected to the inverter.
- Installed the boiler in the closet, fixing it on the brackets from the tolerant material.
Before starting the manufacture of homemade heating boilers for a private house, you need to remember that they are objects of increased danger, so during production you will need to carefully fulfill all safety standards and technological standards.