The basic material is solid bricks. Do not use lightweight elements with cavities inside. Silicate bricks are not suitable, because they are not insulated. к. Structures made of them absorb moisture and vapors and thus quickly deteriorate. Used bricks are thoroughly cleaned of soot and mortar, and the integrity is checked.
Material is used as the inner lining of furnaces, chimneys, fireplaces. Elements insulate the walls from the flame, t. к. form a protective layer against heated fuel.
Refractory bricks can withstand heating up to 1000 ° C without losing their original properties, can withstand repeated heating-cooling, has low heat conductivity.
Produced by clay processing and roasting of raw bricks in furnaces. Used for masonry of the main body of the furnace, chimneys. For the outer layer face bricks with improved decorative qualities are used.
The strength is divided into M100 to M300 grades, the number after the letter means how many kilograms can bear 1 cm².
The sand-and-cement mass is not used for masonry, it is used for the preparation of the foundation for the furnace by adding crushed stone into the mass. Prepare such mortar in small portions so that it can be placed in the mounting position before it sets.
Sand is added to the mortar and the mixture is prepared in a concentration of 1:1 or 1:2, the composition is taken according to the fatness of the clay. Soak it for 24 hours before mixing to get a mixture of the consistency of liquid sour cream.
The mass is strained through a sieve, added to the sand, stirred until homogeneous. A good mixture does not stick to the shovel and does not have lumps.
Building sand and chamotte sand are used. The second kind is used for masonry, t. к. material is obtained by grinding fireclay bricks.
For mortar, sand is cleaned of grass, gravel, roots, then sifted through a sieve. Fine grains will give a thin joint when bricks are placed. Determine the quantity of sand by the fat content of the clay.
Do not take water from the mud, it must be slightly mineralized and clean. A lot of minerals in the water will cause stains after the masonry dries. Such stains can be difficult to remove with plaster. It is best to use water collected after rain.
Stones for the sauna heater
The first elements you find will not work. The material for the sauna must be heat resistant, dense and with good heat dissipation. Wood stoves are equipped with 7-14 mm stones and electric stoves with 5-8 mm stones.
For the heater, sea and river pebbles, basalt, vulcanite, talcochlorite, jadeite, white quartz and raspberry quartzite are used.
Sand and clay mortar
Cement is not well tolerated by high temperatures, so it is not used for the furnace. The masonry is made with a mortar of clay mined at a sufficient depth without any earth or other foreign matter, and sand.
Start of masonry
Allow the clay to stand in water for a few days before starting the work and soften. Before combining with the sand, it is thoroughly stirred with water to the consistency of a greasy thick sour cream. The remaining lumps can be broken up with a construction mixer or a drill with a special attachment.
To prevent pebbles and small stones from getting into the narrow joints, the sand is carefully screened. For masonry refractory bricks, clay and sand are mixed in the ratio of 1:2. To prevent the mortar from drying out, the mixture is prepared in small portions. The mortar should be slightly rough, as elastic as possible, and lie down without tearing.
But the greasiness of clay varies, and the greasier it is, the more sand should be in the mortar. That is why experienced stovesmen check the viscosity by shaking it with a stick or trowel.
The normal thickness of the layer remaining after shaking is 2 mm. If it is less, clay is added. If the consistency of the mortar resembles plasticine, and after shaking the mortar remains larger than 3 mm, more sand should be added to the mixture.
Tools and materials for building a sauna stove from bricks
To build a stove for the bath with their own hands from bricks is not so difficult, and to build it you will need such materials:
Fireclay brick, red heat-resistant brick, or natural stone.
Of the mandatory tools in the work will be useful such devices: a large bucket (container) for mortar, for cutting bricks. angle grinder with a wheel for metal, power drill with a mixer attachment, a building level, plumb, trowel, wooden mallet, devices for measuring (tape measure and marker).
In this video is very detailed and understandable explains how to make a brick stove for the bath with your own hands:
The stove is trimmed with decorative bricks
With water tank
Stove in a Countryside Bathhouse
Furnace-fireplace made of brick
In the rest room
With the function of the boiler
Bath stoves made of bricks: the sequence of work
As we promised, you can estimate your options by getting acquainted with the stages of erecting a stove in a sauna made of bricks.
Brick stove in the bath must have a foundation. No options: the stove in the bath from bricks will have to be put on a separate foundation. Many people think that the case can do with a shallow foundation, but this is not always the case. Focus on what you did for the bathhouse as a whole. After all, everything depends on the load-bearing capacity of the soil. With a weight of several tons, the brick mass will exert considerable pressure on the ground, and it usually sags unevenly, which becomes the cause of warping and breaking the structure of the wall or stove.
The main thing, do not forget that you can not combine the foundations of the bath and the stove in a single structure. It is customary to leave a gap of at least 5 cm between them.
Brick sauna stove: mortar
Two ingredients remain: clay and sand. And both are different in composition or caliber of particles. Sift the sand through a 1.5 mm sieve. As for the clay, then there are two options: either to dig it on your own site, or to buy a bag in a store. In the first case, dig deeper than half a meter, because it is from this mark that begins what you can use.
For masonry the most important parameter of clay will be whether it is fat or lean. These are quite conventional names. The only way to understand what you are dealing with is to dry the lump of clay and look at the result. Skinny clay when drying bursts to crumble. Oily behaves differently: visually, the lump becomes smaller and cracks appear on it.
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The sand before mixing is not only sifted through a fine sieve, but is also washed.
Brick itself brands, types
When planning a stove in a steam room, a bath of bricks, an important role is played by the choice of the basic building material itself. We recommend to see the video, in which the stove operator tells what can be found on sale, which is better in his opinion.
We have already mentioned red refractory and fireclay bricks. Clinker and refractory fireclay are also good for kilns. Fireclay is the most expensive. It is only used for the furnace core. Others of these materials are used for masonry its walls.
The mark (number) indicates the density. Stove builders use from 150 to 250. The higher the density, the higher the heat capacity, the longer to wait until the steam room is heated.
Frost resistance of the material does not matter indoors, but it is worth paying attention to it when you do the chimney.
Homogeneous color is a good sign. Non-uniform indicates uneven firing and, consequently, different strength of the brick sections.
Geometry is also not the last criterion when choosing. The right one is more convenient to work with.
This stove project is suitable for most types of baths. The size of the design will heat the room (10-15 m2) to 50 degrees, and with the steam up to 90 degrees. Tank capacity of 180 liters, built into the stove and satisfies all the need for hot water for a comfortable process of washing all family members. For a longer cooling down of the sauna heater after the furnace is finished, iron pipes (6 pieces, next to the water tank) are provided.
Also, the pipes support the stones above the furnace. Tubes heat up quickly, and after the heating process is completed, they gradually give up the heat. Above the cobblestones there is a hole through which water will be supplied for the formation of steam.
Determined with the project it is necessary to proceed to the very process of assembly. To assemble the stove with your own hands is not difficult. Guided by the masonry drawings, the process will take a little time.
Brick sauna heater stove
Let’s start with the fact that the brick stove for the bath is chosen by fans of specifically Russian steam room, because the furnace is sharpened under its conditions. There are many materials on our site that talk about what these conditions are, so now suffice it to say that a closed sauna heater is one of the important conditions that work in conjunction:
- brick masonry;
- A closed from all sides container for the stones, placed inside the stove;
- Controllable convection (the ability to virtually shut off the air currents).
However, in baths, you can also find open heater. It’s not exactly “by the rules,” but this option is not a novelty. This is rather an echo or descendant of “black style” bath stoves.
The main problem with an open heater is that it lets the heat out freely to the surrounding air, making it impossible to regulate. Besides, the upper row of stones is never heated to a temperature of light steam, so to “get” it in cases of open stoves you have to use a steam gun, which brings water to the most heated stones at the bottom of the stove.
We will not consider a variant that is less consistent with our notion of a Russian bath, so we will go straight to the “right stove”:
With a closed sauna heater
Separate consideration should be given to a brick sauna stove with a closed heater. The designs of brick stoves are quite varied, in particular, they can inherit from conventional heating stoves the system of smoke rotation, which can significantly reduce the temperature of flue gases leaving in the chimney, accumulating heat in the mass of the furnace.
However, by placing a masonry stove inside the brick oven, the heat passing through or flowing around the stove (depending on the design) can just as effectively be removed from the stove gases.
This means that a straight-flow sauna heater without a smoke rotation is the simplest way to sell a closed-brick sauna heater. Which is not without its advantages, because it saves the owner from having to do more complicated cleaning than in this case.
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The stove consists of a furnace, above which there is stone filling in the flowing sauna heater, and a chimney. The density and mass of the filling is such that the furnace gases lose not only heat but also sparks, and only the smoke goes to the chimney.
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Furnace makers recommend making the top of the stove an arch, in which case the efficiency of the stove increases.
It is also possible to use a liner. It is desirable to wrap the firebox and the sauna heater not only with fireclay bricks from the inside, but also with chimney bricks. The main advantage of linings is to increase the life of the furnace.
Another way to do the same is to use metal strips and corners to tighten the liner and, if desired, the stove itself from the outside.
As for the choice of the shape of the stove base, it can be square or rectangular. If we proceed from the geometry of bricks, then the rectangular shape will be better, because then you do not have to cut bricks. However, there are also square schemes, where you almost do not have to cut anything.
Calculation of dimensions
The size of such a stove depends on the room. Divide the area of the room by 2, so you get the right number of kilowatts required for the stove. Then multiply the figure obtained by 2.5 or 3. this is the final parameters. With these calculations in place, you can start looking for schematics of the structure. If you do not have the skills to draw up such building plans yourself, you can find them in special literature, or on the Internet. Choose your options based on the numbers you get and the size of the room.
Construction Diagrams of the Stoves for the Bath, Description of the Stove Construction
Before to understand a question of the device of furnaces for the bath, we ourselves have spent considerable time studying this subject. So we know that people who have an idea about the designs of bath stoves, usually do not condescend to explain everything from the basics, and most texts on the Internet and at all written by those who are not at all in the subject.
In such a situation, we considered it important and necessary to share with you what we have learned. Let’s start with the theory, and then show the characteristic schemes of bath stoves.