How to make a proper sauna stove

Vertical and horizontal stove for the bath from a pipe we make with our own hands

It is difficult to imagine a bath without a stove, because it, in addition to heating the room, is also the key to comfort and getting pleasure from bathing procedure.

The stove in the bath is easy to make with your own hands, and it will work well, and will not require much money and time investment. The simplest model. sauna stove made of a pipe with a large diameter. Its production does not require any special experience and knowledge in this field.

Wood stove for the bath: features, classification, useful tips

Traditional sauna stoves are heated with wood. It is considered the basic condition for the creation of a specific microclimate. Even the appearance of such a stove evokes a lot of associations and creates an image of something familiar and close.

Today there are a lot of alternative options for heating the bath, but wood stoves remain in demand and preferred by most fans and professionals of bathing.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantages of a brick sauna stove should include:

  • The ability to accumulate and give back heat for a long time;
  • Uniform and stable mode of heating the room;
  • attractive and neat appearance
  • comfort and usability.

The disadvantages of a brick stove can be considered:

  • Stationary version of the installation, the impossibility of moving the furnace even a few centimeters;
  • high weight and size, the need to create your own base (foundation);
  • Heating the room requires more time than when using metal stoves;
  • If used incorrectly, there is a risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.

If you accidentally touch the brick stove to get a severe burn is more difficult than if you touch the red-hot body of a metal structure. In addition, it takes much longer for a brick structure to cool down. the bath retains its operating mode for several hours.

Brick bath stoves

What kind of sauna depends mainly on the stove in it. Traditionally, a Russian bathhouse should have a brick stove, replacing the older stone stove. And many owners of baths that are under construction or have long been built are trying to put one in their homes, after all, it is a thing that has been proven over the centuries. But how to assess the magnitude of effort, time and finances associated with the construction of a brick sauna stove?

We want to help you read and consider whether it will be on the power to cope yourself or still look for a professional, or it is easier to abandon this venture in favor of a brick-lined metal stove, which, with skillful handling can give the same condition as the brick one?

How to make a device with their own hands

Each sauna stove is performed according to a strict algorithm, consisting of the following steps:

  • project development;
  • Preparation of suitable materials and tools;
  • the choice of location for the erection;
  • Construction of the foundation or brick base;
  • Installation or mounting of prefabricated structures.

Important! Each step has a direct impact on the final result, for this reason it is better to pay attention to each step.

Choosing a design for a homemade stove, drawing

The construction project of the bath stove is developed on the basis of the special requirements for the heating product.

Detailed drawing of the metal sauna stove, the dimensions of all parts of the device are indicated.

The main points to pay attention to when choosing projects:

  • the area and volume of the steam room;
  • The maximum temperature of the sauna heater;
  • materials, as well as the ability to use a ready-made design with modern heat carriers (gas or electricity);
  • construction budget;
  • decorative design.

Drawing of a brick stove for the bath with the size of the device. Stove with an enclosed sauna heater.

Preparation of materials and tools

If it is a question of building a brick or stone stove, for its construction will be required:

  • fireclay bricks;
  • Chamotte clay or powder for the mortar;
  • Sand and cement for the foundation;
  • Cast iron doors for the ash pan and firebox;
  • Metal corners for laying bricks or stones;
  • reflective metal heat insulation screen for installation at the points of contact of the furnace with the walls of the steam room;
  • grate;
  • Stones for the sauna stove: the most suitable option. cobbles from the river or sea bottom, which have been treated with water for a long time.

If we are talking about a metal stove with different heat transfer fluids, then for its construction and operation will be required:

  • Brick and cement to install the base of the stove;
  • metal pipes for the chimney and bringing the coolant (if the furnace will not be heated with wood);
  • metal corners to fix the stove;
  • heat reflective screen to ensure the safety of the construction.

Of the tools you will need:

  • buckets;
  • shovels;
  • trowels and trowels;
  • level and vertical plumb benches;
  • welding machine and electrodes (for mounting the metal elements);
  • hammer;
  • angle grinder and cutting discs.

Attention! When working with power tools must use protective elements. goggles, mask, gloves, and clothing to protect against damage.

construction site

When building a sauna stove, it is necessary to form a foundation, which is built independently of the foundation of the sauna itself. Before constructing a masonry furnace, reinforce the walls around it and also cover them with heatproofing material.

Under the foundation dig a foundation pit with a depth of 40 to 60 cm, and its size should exceed the size of the structure by at least 10 cm on each side. First, the pit is filled with sand and gravel, then everything is tamped and covered with mortar. The upper layer is reinforced.

Important! The mortar is made plastic and is poured in two layers to achieve the best possible curing.

How to rustle up a stove?

Installation of the stove for the bath begins with the laying of a layer of any non-combustible heat and moisture insulating material to avoid the destruction of the foundation from the constant temperature fluctuations. Seams should not exceed four millimeters, because otherwise they will quickly begin to break down, and from the oven in the steam room will enter the smoke from the wood and carbon monoxide.

Variant of the masonry brick oven with an open heater. There are 21 steps in the construction.

The masonry of the furnace is done in the following order:

  • The first row is laid flat, to avoid further deviations from the vertical and horizontal planes;
  • Each subsequent row is set according to the scheme, and after completion is checked with a level and vertical plumb to the evenness of the laying;
  • On the second row begins laying the ashlar;
  • In the third row is the fixing of the ash door;
  • The fourth row is laid according to the chosen scheme without any changes;
  • In the fifth row the corners are laid to fix the grate: it is laid loosely;
  • From the sixth to the tenth row the firebox is made of fireclay bricks, because these bricks quickly cool down;
  • On the eleventh row the metal corners are laid on which the roof of the furnace is formed;
  • the furnace door is secured and its edges should preferably be wrapped with furnace basalt cord, which compensates for all expansion and contraction when exposed to temperature;
  • After completion of the furnace chamber in the scheme is formed by the heater, which can be both open and closed. in the latter case, build a chamber for the location of the stones, the flap which allows you to easily load stones inside and pull out for washing and bulkhead;
  • A chimney is routed from the sauna heater, which, if necessary, can be equipped with a hot water tank.

What to build with

Special heat-resistant materials are designed for stove construction. The outer finish may be less heat-resistant than for the inner lining of the furnace, but must be resistant to cracking, mechanical damage and direct water ingress.

Refractory bricks, plates, blocks

Used for masonry in areas of contact with open flames and hot gases. This is the inner layer of the furnace and the lower sections of the chimney, as well as the joints to the metal surfaces. Refractory materials form a shell that protects the layers outside from the heat.

Refractory products are made from chamotte. a special clay that is fired at temperatures up to 1500 ° C. After sintering they become very heat-resistant, capable of withstanding numerous cycles of heating and cooling without loss of strength.

The marking of the refractory material must include the letter Sh, which means fireclay. Masonry of such bricks or blocks are made on the heat-resistant mortar with a thickness not exceeding 1 mm, which allows to preserve strength and integrity of the shell at high temperatures.

Red building brick

It is made of red-burning clays that are less heat resistant than chamotte. Red brick can not withstand intense heat, but it has a fairly high heat capacity, strength and durability.

Ceramic bricks are used for foundations for stoves and for adjacent layers of refractory materials. Facial solid brick has optimal properties. It is durable, does not absorb moisture and, unlike hollow brick, stores heat well.

Red ordinary brick is also good, but its surface is porous, so you need to exterior decoration.

Important. Silicate bricks should not be used for cladding. Because it is unstable to variations in humidity and temperature, it deteriorates quickly.

Natural stone

Heat capacity and resistance of this material is very high, which is why almost all ancient furnaces were built from stone. They are still popular in places where there are natural deposits of these rocks.

how to make a sauna stove

Stone masonry is more difficult than brick masonry for a number of reasons:

  • Stone is heavier than any brick, requires a very strong base;
  • Stones do not have a clear geometry, they need to be carefully selected and docked in the masonry process;
  • if the surface is smooth, the adhesion is low, so it is difficult to choose a mortar.

Much more often the natural material is used to clad the stoves, which can be built of brick or welded from metal.


The advantages of steel furnaces. lightness, durability and ease of manufacture. The installation does not require a powerful foundation, a small pedestal is enough. The furnace chamber and door should be of heat-resistant steel grades with chromium added. To prevent rapid burnout, it is advisable to use a sheet of at least 4-6 mm thick. The body and protective is made of cheaper structural. For the chimney, you can take a multi-layer sandwich pipe with insulation inside.

Stove for a metal bath quickly warms up the room, which is especially valuable for dacha leisure time, where there is not always time for a long fire. Know how to work with metal construction can be welded yourself. Disadvantages. high fire risk, not very high power, the need to keep the fire because of the rapid cooling.

make, proper, sauna, stove

Important. The red-hot steel stove is source of increased injury. To reduce the risk of burns, it is recommended to install a protective wall made of brick or wood.

Cast iron

It differs from steel in that it has a higher carbon content, which provides a higher heat resistance and heat capacity of the stoves. Cast iron heaters are reliable, durable, much slower to corrode than steel. But for the manufacture of the stove with his own hands cast iron is rarely used. Welding at home involves some difficulties because of the tendency of the joints to cracking with uneven cooling.

Much more often made of cast iron are plates that are placed on the furnace. You can also buy a ready-made cast iron stove in a disassembled form, and then assemble it using mechanical fasteners.

Insulation, fire retardant materials

To protect surrounding surfaces from overheating, sparks and possible fire, insulation materials are used. sheet asbestos, basalt cardboard, protective screens, fireproof wall cladding.

It is especially important to install insulation if the minimum distance between the stove and the walls is not maintained:

  • For brick stoves it is 32 cm;
  • For metal furnaces. 1 m;
  • for metal lined ones (with the furnace lined with a brick inside). 0.7 mm.

Fireproof screens are made of red bricks, ceramic tiles, plaster with the addition of fire clay, asbestos fiber, liquid glass As non-combustible cladding for walls one can use metal sheets fixed to the surface with a gap through a layer of insulation. Stainless steel is preferable to galvanized steel, as it does not emit any harmful substances when heated.

The pedestal and the floor around the furnace must also be non-combustible. They shall be covered with asbestos or basalt cardboard at least 0.7-1 m around the furnace.

Basic requirements for Russian bath stoves

Working out the drawing of the furnace for the bath, you should remember that to such structures are the following requirements:

  • high heat output, allowing you to heat the air in the ceiling up to 95-100 ° C and in the floor. up to 45 ° C. The numerical values of this parameter depend on the area of the structure and the material from which the walls are made;
  • small size. An oven for a Russian bath should take up a minimum of space;
  • sufficient water heating. On average, at least 15 liters for one person;
  • Possibility to accumulate heat for a long time;
  • safety. Smoke and gas must not penetrate into the bath while the heating system is in operation.

Construction Diagrams of the Stoves for the Bath, Description of Stove Layout

Before dealing with the issue of the device of stoves for the bath, we ourselves spent a lot of time studying this topic. So we know, that people, who have an idea about the construction of the stoves in the bath, usually do not condescend to explain everything from the basics, and most texts on the Internet and even written by those who are not at all in the subject.

In this situation, we thought it important and necessary to share with you what we have managed to learn. Let’s start with the theory, and then we will show you the typical diagrams of bath stoves.

Preparing the stove

Before you do the chimney, the stove must already be in its intended place. But first you have to heat it for the first time in the yard. Do it necessarily, because the first heating usually sets and partially burns out the industrial heat-resistant paint. It smells and smells a little bit “smoky” when it burns. That’s normal, that’s how it should be.

By the way, new stones are also good to try in the yard, and sometimes they stink, sting your throat and eyes. It is better to live through this in the fresh air, not in the steam room.

Assemble the furnace according to the instructions, put it on a flat and solid foundation, put some piece of at least a ventilation pipe on the chimney piece (at least 2 meters long) and heat it up well one time. While you’re there, find out if there are any construction defects, if it smokes, and so you’ll get to know each other.

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