How to make a hearth stove with your own hands: masonry instructions
To heat country houses more and more often resorted to the brick stoves, abandoning a variety of electrical appliances and gas. Stove has always allowed you to quickly and for a long time heats the living room with live heat.
Homemade Wood Stove Build
The main thing in the furnace heating. the ability to initially accumulate heat, and then gradually give it away. The most economical option for brick stoves is considered a deck stove. It is more popular all over the world.
Stove is called a hearth stove if it has a surface where the fuel is put to burn it.
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The hearth stove is loved because it is economical to use. Top burn in such a furnace is uniform and does not consume much fuel. In the process of combustion, the fuel is oxidized due to the air masses entering through the stove door, which ensures the release of heat.
If you take apart the structure of the hearth stove itself, you get the three main parts of the firebox:
- The lowest tier represents a chamber for loading the heating material.
- The level above is responsible for combustion. At this section the highest temperature is fixed.
- The upper floor takes out the gases after the combustion of wood and forms the heat.
The device of Russian oven
Russian stoves can differ in size, shape and design features. According to one of the definitions, these are heating and cooking structures with 2 fuel stoves, which, in addition to their heating functions, are also designed for cooking characteristic dishes and baking loaf.
The process of burning wood in the main firebox is as follows: the gases from the burning of logs enters into the 1 st under the pod pod chamber, then through special holes. podvertki come into the 2 st sections. They then travel to the upper cooking chamber, from there to the collection duct and to the chimney.
When burning firewood in a small fuelbox, the gases from combustion first go into the main fuelbox, from it into the chimney. Here you can use not only dry logs, but also bark, wood chips, branches and other scraps.
The base of the structure is the foundation, usually 0.1 m larger than the bottom of the Russian stove. Here at the bottom there is the underbelly, which is a free space for storing pokers, grubs, spatulas and other utensils.
For masonry cooking chamber, and in particular for the vault, choose the most fire-resistant, selected bricks. The thickness of the walls depends on how long the heat will hold.
The thin walls of the cooking chamber heat up very quickly, but cool down just as quickly. Standard thickness is 1 or ¾ brick. The front wall is thinner. ½ brick, as is the partition in front of the crucible.
In the lower part of the cooking chamber there is a bottom, which is made of solid, smooth bricks. It is often laid dry, without mortar, on coarse-grained sand backfill, to which is added crushed stone, gravel or broken glass. The flooring is laid with a 3-5 cm slope towards the mouth.
The shape of the arch influences the degree of heating and the complexity of masonry.
Gentle arches are more difficult to lay, and steel ties have to be used to distribute the load. This design, however, causes the stove to get warmer.
Masonry technology of the Russian stove can vary, but often the following rule is followed: lay it simultaneously on 2 sides and finish in the middle. In the center lay the castle brick, for coating which clay mortar is used.
If a loaf is baked, then the substructure is cleared. the ash is raked out, and its remains are swept away.
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There is still a way of baking a loaf without baking trays or molds, when it is placed on a special shovel lightly sprinkled with flour, and then “put in the oven”. simply dropped with a sharp movement on the under.
Before you make a furnace for the stove, you need to build a base under it: for this purpose, the fourth brick row is used. Lower chamotte elements are equipped with a pick on a quarter of a brick, for laying the grate. Its function is to separate the furnace and the ash pan. The fifth row serves as a stand for the side walls of the furnace and vertical duct separators.
How to make a simple but effective stove
Alternative to metal devices (for example, burzhuyka). The stove for the house made of brick will help to heat the room, cook food. The structure manages without a standard base.
The structure will be small, without a heavy mass. The frame is made of a strong board. The design is created in one day. The first firing can be made on the same day, in the evening. It is easy to build a mini stove of bricks in the house with their own hands.
The choice and preparation of the place of installation
For this kind of stoves there is no need to build a monolithic foundation due to their low weight. To choose the place of installation should be guided by such parameters as the distance from doors and windows (for less heat loss) and the convenience of the chimney outlet from the room. Garages and utility rooms usually have a concrete floor, so nothing needs to be laid. In rooms with a wooden floor, you should lay a sheet of asbestos or tin sheet on the place of installation and fix it on the perimeter with screws. On the walls near the place of installation to avoid heat loss can be glued foil insulation.
Improved variants of heaters
Many Russian craftsmen have been engaged in the modernization of the classic stove. I. Kuznetsov, I. Podgorodnikov, A. Emshanov, A. Batsulin. The essence of changes is the following: the parts of the old construction. the vaulted furnace, the choke and the mouthpiece. were taken as the basis. New functional elements were added to them:
- A hob is placed instead of a pole, and a small fireplace is placed underneath. A parallel shaft of the summer passage is laid out, at the top it is united with the main chimney.
- The red-hot gases from the additional combustion chamber are conducted through the flue channels made in the lower part. the furnace. The combustion products are then discharged into a common chimney.
Note. These modifications allow heating the stove in two ways: the Russian way (the smoke goes out through the mouth and chimney) and in the heating and cooking mode (the gas flows around the channels).
Another example in the side wall are arranged vertical passages that form the heating shield
We have tried to describe the most common concepts in an easy-to-understand manner, but there are considerably more variants. The purpose of the changes is to improve the heat dissipation and functionality of the basic design. If desired, a water circuit register or an oven can be installed in the gas pipes (placed next to the firebox).
Now we will consider the updated variants in detail on concrete examples with drawings and rows of figures.
Heating furnace location
When arranging the furnace heating by yourself, it is necessary to provide the best location for the installation of the heating unit. If, for example, to place the construction in the middle of the room, then the heat output it will have the maximum possible, because it will heat the space from all sides, while giving evenly to the air heat.
Advantages of a stove with a water heating loop
Compared to the classic option (furnace without a loop), here is achieved an even heat transfer throughout the house, a rational use of fuel.
Choosing a heating installation
Choosing the type of furnace, the owners of private houses and cottages, first of all, take into account their own financial capabilities. Of course, the masonry brick heating structure will cost much more than the assembly of a metal device. Despite the difference in price, most homeowners, however, prefer stoves made of brick.
To calculate the heat output of the future heating construction, you can use a simplified method: so the furnace with a notional area of one “square”, can effectively heat a room measuring 30 square meters.
Therefore, the building should be properly insulated to reduce the possibility of heat loss. “How to make a stove in the house.”.