How to make an electric boiler for heating a house yourself

DIY electrode boiler for heating at home: step.by.step process of manufacturing and installation

Electrode (another name. ion) boiler is one of the variations of electrical heating devices. It is used mainly in country houses and differs in that instead of familiar heating elements, it is equipped with a set of electrodes, which, in fact, are engaged in heating working fluid. Such an innovation made it possible to get rid of the shortcomings characteristic of electrical equipment. low productive and small operations about the deadline. Thanks to the simplicity of the design, you can make an electrode boiler with your own hands. But before starting the assembly, you should familiarize yourself with the features of its work.

From a constructive point of view, such a boiler is a small whole.metal pipe with polyamide spraying (it performs the function of the insulator). The input and withdrawal of the coolant, as well as the power terminals, are connected to the body. On the one hand, a set of isolated electrodes is inserted into the pipe, while the other is sealed.

Consider the technical parameters of factory models.

  • Length. up to 60 cm, diameter. not more than 32 cm.
  • Power can vary between 2 and 50 kW, in other words, boilers are able to heat a room with an area of ​​up to 1,500 m².
  • They can also be one- and three-phase. In the first case, low.power devices used in private houses are implied, in the second. boilers with high productive, intended for industrial facilities.
  • The optimal value of energy consumption is achieved at the temperature of the working fluid in 75 ° C. If the indicator is higher, then the energy consumption increases, and if below, then it, accordingly, decreases (at minus temperatures, the thermal conductivity in the fluid worsens).

By the method of supplying the coolant, ion devices can be of two types:

  • Open systems are characterized by the fact that the heated liquid moves naturally, transfers heat and goes back to the heat generator;
  • Closed contains a special pump and expansion tank. they are necessary for the initial stage of heating of the working fluid.
  • the inability to work from emergency power systems;
  • high requirements for the conductivity of the coolant;
  • the need for grounding due to a high risk of electric shock;
  • the need for special knowledge to control the work of the device.

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We also note that air entering the body can lead to a fairly rapid formation of corrosion.

Collecting electric boots with our own hands

If you are going to make an electric boiler with your own hands, you will find drawings and principles of work in our review. Before assembly, you should make sure that the necessary tools and equipment should be available. To begin with, we will understand the principles of the operation of electrode boilers. there is nothing complicated in them, the technology is simple and proven.

The principle of operation of the heating boiler is quite simple, the heating water heats the water that is in contact with it directly.

In classic electric boilers, the coolant is heated using heating elements with or without. Heating elements have some slowness. from turning on to exit to the operating mode passes a lot of time. In addition, they are unsafe, since fires often occur due to their fault. In standard boilers, the heating plants are located inside a small diameter pipe along which the coolant passes. it heats up and heats the heating system.

There are also temperature sensors that determine the degree of heating of the coolant. adjustments are made in the design of the heating boilers. Another method of control is possible, by air temperature sensor. Both types of sensors are connected to external automation systems responsible for starting and stopping equipment.

Description of the principle of work

The principle of operation of electrode boilers is different:

Electric boilers heat water due to ions formed in water as a result of supplying alternating current to electrodes.

  • Instead of the heating elements, one or three electrodes (for single.phase or three.phase boilers) are located in the pipe;
  • When the electricity is supplied in the pipe, ion exchange begins;
  • The coolant is heated and transfers heat to pipes and radiators.

Many of the readers are signed by an army boiler consisting of two shaving blades and two wires. It quickly warms up water, after which it is used to brew tea and other food needs. But this boiler consumes a huge amount of electricity. its operation often leads to the operation of the RCD in the shield. A similar principle is used in electrode boilers.

In order for the electric boiler to work more efficiently, salt, soda or special additives are added to the coolant. They increase the electrical conductivity of water and improve the heating of the system.

Assembly of an electric boiler

Scheme of a simple electrode boiler for heating systems.

Now we will try to assemble an electric boiler for heating a house with our own hands. With the indicated size of the pipe used, we get a device, the power of which will be about 4-5 kW-this is enough to heat rooms with an area of ​​up to 40-50 kV. m. We take the pipe and proceed to its inspection. it should be whole, without cracks and traces of rust. In the presence of rust, it should be removed with fine sandpaper.

We weld two bolts to the pipe. zero and grounding will be connected to them. Thus, the body of the pipe will become our external electrode. Next, weld the entrance and output nozzles. they will serve to connect to the heating system. The input pipe is located from below, and the output pipe is displayed on top. The top cover can be welded, or you can make an internal thread in the pipe and make the lid removable.

The removable upper cover will ensure the convenience of maintenance of the boiler. it is likely that in the future it will have to be cleared from accumulated salts and toxins. If reluctance to contact removable lids, then you can weld them.

When assembling an electric boiler, be careful, do not allow the contacts of the electrodes to each other.

The most difficult thing is to make the lower lid and insert the electrode into it. We recommend making the lid removable so that the electrode can be easily pulled out and changed. The internal electrode should not come into contact with the internal walls and the lid itself. To create insulation, you should use ready.made fiberglass or fluoroplastic insulators. The procedure may seem laborious, but if the collector has “straight hands”, then he will cope with this task.

Both covers, upper and lower, should be sealed with rubber gaskets. The length of the internal electrode should be such that it does not touch the opposite wall (it is the upper cover).

Installation of an electric boiler

Our homemade electrode boiler is ready, it remains to take the last steps:

  • Mount the boiler and connect it to the heating system;
  • Fill the system with a coolant and check its tightness;
  • Perform electrical connections.

Verification of the heating system under the pressure is carried out using a special apparatus called the test defender.

Electric boilers are mounted in an upright position, so that the electrical output for connecting the central electrode is below. We connect the input and output pipes with the heating system, after which we fill the heating system with the coolant. Carefully look through all the connections for leaks. If possible, you should check the tightness of the independent heating system under pressure. the maximum indicator for such systems is not higher than three atmospheres.

If everything is fine with tightness, we proceed to electrical connections. Since the power of our boiler is more than 3 kW, we extend from the electric shield a separate electric fishing line for a trimmer. Please note that it is not necessary to put an RCD. they do not work together with electrode boilers. The phase is connected to the central electrode, zero. to the body. There is also a grounding (for this, two bolts are welded to the case, to the case, the housing is connected to the case). Grounding is recommended to be connected with a copper wire with a section of 4 mm.

Electric boilers produce a large amount of hydrolysis gases. Therefore, the heating system working on such boilers should be equipped with a gap.

The supply of electricity to boilers is carried out manually or using special automation. Power consumption is measured by an ammeter. Here you need to trace whether the equipment has come out for the operating mode. If we take into account that the power of the boiler is 4-5 kW, then the current strength in the circuit should be from 18 to 22 A (with a voltage of 220 volts). If the current strength is insufficient, a solution of soda or salt is added to the coolant.

During the operation of the system, you can notice that it does not always work stably. It’s all about changing the parameters of the coolant. its electrical conductivity changes, the resistance falls. Therefore, you need to regularly control the condition of the coolant and add salt and additives to it.

With your own hands

For an electric heating boiler, Ten is the main element. Without it, it is impossible to convert electrical energy into thermal. The heating element is placed in the housing and connected to regulators, sensors, control boards and other additional nodes designed to facilitate the operation of equipment.

If there is a system with a pipeline with thick walls in the house, the heating element can be installed directly in it. The pipe will play the role of the case. This design has a number of shortcomings, but it has the right to exist. Very often the heating element is installed in the heating system as an emergency source of thermal energy. If the main boiler stops working for any reason, you can simply connect the heating element that will heat the coolant. Depending on the specific situation, the heating element can heat water to a minimum temperature to prevent only defrost the system or it can work in full power, providing the whole house with warmth.

Another common design is an option with a removable pipe. In general, it is similar to the previous option, but allows you to quickly remove and replace the heater in case of failure, the need for repair, etc. D. In manufacture, this design is more complicated, but compared to the previous one, it is universal.

A little more complicated.

Despite the presence of alternative methods of using electricity in heating systems, a full.fledged boiler is still the best option. The body of the boiler is best made of steel. This choice is justified in terms of security, durability of the design, as well as ease of manufacture. You can create a case using a conventional welding machine. Such work will not require any serious special skills.

Do not make a large body. The more compact than the dimensions of the boiler, the more efficient it works. What to do if the house is large and you need an unit, the power of which will allow you to heat a large amount of water? Abandon the electric boiler in favor of another type of equipment. Electric devices are suitable for heating a small country house, but with heating of the cottages of a large area, they will be far from the best choice.

The case can have any shape, but it should be hermetically welded on both sides. Two holes are made on both sides. Through one coolant is supplied to the system, through another cooled water enters the boiler.

The largest difficulty in the manufacture of heating electric boiler is to choose the right heating. Its power should be enough to heat the coolant and water in the DHW system (if necessary, its arrangement). Power is selected on the basis of calculations carried out. When designing a hot water supply system, it is better to choose a heater with large power indicators.

In the case of the heating element is installed on the lower cover, opposite the hole through which the cooled coolant is supplied to the heater. In the pipeline, next to the boiler, it is worth installing shut.off valves to ensure the maintainability of the device. Controversial reinforcement will disable the boiler without draining water from the system if necessary. As a rule, heating systems with an electric boiler are made with forced circulation, which will also require connection of pumping equipment.

Electricity

The operation of electrical equipment is ensured by the energy of the mains. To connect a home.made device to the latter, you will need to construct an electrical panel. You will definitely need to connect a three.phase input. It is better to entrust this part of the work with a qualified electrician, since the price of an error is disproportionate.

In the metal shield, a starter, automation, relay, electrical control elements are installed. The system must be grounded. Grounding efficiency should be checked annually by employees of specialized organizations. The data obtained by measurements must be recorded in the protocol. The simplest way to perform grounding is as follows. Under the floor there is a structure from a bolt welded to a metal pin. The electrical wir that goes from the shield is screwed to the bolt. As you can see, everything is simple.

The electrical circuit of the device will include the following elements:

  • Machine.
  • Magnetic switch.
  • Control buttons.
  • Tumbler and relay.
  • Circuit breakers.
  • Thermals.
  • Additional automation (if necessary).

After connecting to the mains, you can make the first launch of the boiler and testing the system.

Types and principle of work

Having decided to make an electric boiler for heating a house with your own hands, you need to understand the varieties of such devices. You can make an electrode and induction type of boilers. There are other varieties, but they are only modifications of these main types. The second name of the electrode boiler is the ion unit. It is called that because in the device electric energy is converted into thermal.

Electric boiler

A homemade electrode heater has compact dimensions, therefore it is easily fixed on the pipe and does not need a separate place for installation on the floor or hanging on the wall. For greater strength and safety, it is fixed on two self.tapping screws, but if desired, you can not use them.

Outwardly, the entire structure looks like a piece of pipe with a length of 400 mm. On the one hand, the pipe is tightly brewed, and on the other, a steel rod sticks out of it. A pipe for circulating the coolant through the pipes is installed on the side or in one of the ends.

A tennian boiler made by our own hands, the manufacturing process of which we described above, must have two pipes on the side of connecting the return and supply pipeline with circulating coolant.

There are several options for the location of these pipes:

  • One pipe segment can be installed in the end part of the device, and the other is welded to the hole in the side. Thus, it is installed perpendicular to the axis of the first pipe.
  • The second fastening option involves the installation of two pipes in the side of the unit. It turns out that both pipe bounces are installed parallel to each other, but perpendicular to the main capacity of the heater.

A homemade heater has the following principle of operation:

  • The coolant in the coolant is constantly circulated positively and negatively charged particles (which are called anodes and cathodes);
  • When voltage is supplied, ions rush to electrodes with the opposite charge;
  • Since the polarity of the electrodes is constantly changing with a frequency of 50 times per second, the ions move in one direction or the other;
  • Such a chaotic movement of ions causes particles friction and their heating (because of this, the temperature of the coolant rises).

Having made an electric boiler for heating with your own hands, you should not forget that it has its drawbacks. The disadvantages are due to the fact that the thermal carrier is constantly energized, so before serving in the heating circuit it is thoroughly cleaned of salts and other impurities that can settle on the walls of the pipelines and the heating element.

Attention! In systems with electric shoes, it is forbidden to use antifreeze as a coolant. For these purposes, purified water is used.

Induction unit

The principle of operation of electrical induction types of electrical units is based on the heating of the coolant through a magnetic field, which is formed by an electric current.

There are the following components in these devices:

In induction type boilers, the thermal carrier does not have a voltage, as in the units of the electrode variety. This is ensured by the complete isolation of the liquid medium from the elements conducting electricity.

The coil of copper coil is connected to the network through the automation system. After that, a magnetic field is formed in the coil, which warms up the pipe that performs the functions of the core. Since the coolant circulates inside it, the heat is immediately transmitted to the liquid. In the process of operation, the case of the device does not heat up. To do this, in the construction of the case, a layer of special insulation is provided.

The core itself has a curved configuration to ensure a longer passage of the coolant in this section with the aim of its sufficient heating. The service life of the induction boiler reaches 25 years. There is simply nothing to break in this unit, so it will last until the core pipe runs corrosion.

Launch of the boiler

Before the trial start of the heating unit, they check how hermetic all nodes and connections are sealed, as well as the correct assembly of the mains. After that, the coolant is poured into the system. Be sure to make sure that there are no transmitted or torn wires on the network, because the three.phase network has a large current force. All wire connections must be well isolated.

Before starting the unit, it is well cleaned of pollution. For the correct and uninterrupted operation of such a heater, you need to protect yourself from voltage jumps. For this purpose, an RCD is mounted on the network.

The trial launch of the boiler is performed in the following sequence:

  • A purified coolant is poured into the system.
  • It is important that the air does not accumulate in the circuit, so it is lowered using the crane of Maevsky. Such reinforcement should be installed on the upper radiators in the system.
  • We turn on the electric boiler and wait for the heating of the coolant.

Assembly of a heating boiler on electrodes

Devices of this type of steel are actively used only in the last 10-15 years. These are more technological devices compared to the heating.

Design

In electronic electric boilers, the liquid plays the role of a heating element. A do.it.yourself electric boiler of this type is a metal case, inside which is an isolated steel electrode.

0 is supplied to the case, and the phase is on the electrode. During the supply of voltage, fluctuations in water ions with a frequency of 50 herts begins. In this case, the liquid gradually heats up. Thanks to this property, such boilers are also called ionic.

The sizes of electrode boilers are small. They can be made from a pipe with a cross section of up to 320 mm and up to 60 cm long. However, an electric boiler for heating a house with your own hands can be done much less.

  • small size, thanks to which the ion boiler can be placed even in a small apartment;
  • the absence of the so.called “dry move”, which guarantees the serviceability of the boiler, since without a liquid inside it will not work;
  • resistance to voltage drops;
  • high speed of heating and cooling, which means the ease of adjustment;
  • efficiency in electricity consumption compared with the heating devices.

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Among the shortcomings of such boilers can be called the following points:

  • An important condition for the effective functioning of the electrode boiler is the level of thermal conductivity and the quality of the coolant;
  • The device must be reliably grounded because the risk of electric shock is great;
  • It is important to exclude the possibility of an air system, otherwise, the electrodes will become unusable due to corrosion.

Instructions for assembling a home.made electrode boiler

As a case for an electric heating boiler, we use a pipe with an internal section of about 50 mm and 40 cm long. In addition, you will need a whole rod with a diameter of 20 mm and 30 cm long, as well as two adapters with chopped internal threads. In the end of the rod, drill a dull hole with a thread for a bolt Ø10 mm.

Prepare the nozzles. 1 we will weld in the end part of the pipe, and the other to the side. In order for the side pipe to fit the pipe perfectly, it is cut out by corner grinding, and then supplied with a round file.

Cut holes for nozzles. If there is no cut, then a lot of small holes can be drilled around the circle. To the ideal of work is brought by a file and a round file. The hole for the side pipe must be placed 10-15 mm from the edge of the pipe.

At the next stage, it is necessary to weld the pipes to the pipe. To prevent them from led, first they make spot welding in several places, and then impose a continuous seam.

Prepare a platform for an electric boiler. To do this, you can take a sheet of fiberglass 2 cm thick and cut a piece of 120 × 120 mm using a hacksaw for metal. Then, in this platform, it is necessary to drill one hole in the center, and four. around the perimeter. The cross section of the holes should be 10-12 mm.

The mounts of the boiler housing will be missed through the holes around the perimeter, and the central hole is designed to fix the steel electrode.

We start fixing the case for the boiler on the platform. To ensure reliable fit, on the housing from 4 sides you can weld four nuts Ø12 mm. Bolts Ø10 mm will easily pass through them.

Such nuts need to be welded with a slight indentation from the platform. To provide it, it is necessary to wind on the bolts suitable for the size of the nut, put them in wide nuts, and fix it again with smaller. Thus, it will be easier to perform welding work.

At the last stage, we carry out the final assembly of the boiler. To do this, cut the rubber gasket with a cross.section slightly larger than the outer diameter of the boiler. In its central part, we perform a hole and spread through it the electrode. Then we install the case on the platform and fasten.

Assembly of an induction boiler

For the manufacture of an induction boiler you will need:

Two pipe is attached to the plastic pipe, having previously made the corresponding holes. Its internal space is completely filled with trimming wire 40-50 mm long.

Then an induction coil is created: the wire is carefully wrapped around the pipe, the total number of turns is about 90. The coil is connected to the inverter. The resulting home.made heating boiler is mounted directly into the pipeline, cutting out a pipe section.

Assembly of an electric boiler

Just make an electrode heater. For this, the master will be needed:

  • an iron pipe with a diameter of 57 mm with thick walls;
  • iron sheet with a thickness of more than 2 mm;
  • internal electrode with a diameter of 25 mm;
  • Paronite or rubber gaskets and connective terminals.

As in previous cases, you need to start with the attachment of pipes for pipes to the future body of the boiler. From one end, the nozzle is welded to the unit, from the other. they make a thread.

Having made an electric boiler with your own hands, a hole for the plug is drilled in the housing. The electrode is attached to the latter, it is installed inside the boiler. At the final stage, the homemade case is brewed, installing the lid cut out of the iron sheet and the bottom.

After cleaning welds, you need to check them for permeability. For this place, welding is covered with soap foam, and inside the case, the air press is pumped up. Where the bubbles appeared, the boiler will flow. When all identified malfunctions are eliminated, you can treat the case with enameled paint.

The boiler will work properly if the water in the heating system of the house contains soda. The latter is added in order to increase the current strength: you can calculate this indicator by dividing the power of the unit by 220.

First Start

After all the boiler systems have been tested for performance, they start starting the boiler. To do this, include voltage on the heating elements and control the process of heating the coolant, the operation of electric and thermal equipment. In the process of heating, you need to lower the air and monitor the operation of the expansion tank.

Also checked for the density of the joints and the operation of automation for the electric boiler. Heating should go to the set temperature on the thermostat, after which the protection independently turns off the voltage supply to the heater, and the coolant circulation system works.

In the process of heating, check the operation of electrical equipment, automatic machines, starters, cable lines should not be heated, and protection often work.

Thus, it is quite possible to collect electric boums with your own hands. It is important to understand that this device belongs to sources of increased danger, it must comply with the rules for the operation of heat engineering and electricity equipment. Assembly and adjustment should be engaged in certified specialists of electricians.

In order for the boiler to correspond to the heat loss of the house, in the coldest period of the year it will be necessary to first calculate the power. With a magnitude of more than 5 kW, the boiler owner must obtain permission to operate from the regional energy supervision body and reconstruct the electric networks of the house for increased electric load.

Otherwise, such a home.made electric boiler for heating will not create difficulty to the owner, he is fully automated and easily maintains the required sanitary temperature in the house.

Advantages and disadvantages

Pros:

  • The efficiency due to the principle of operation and the minimum of details approaches 95-98%.
  • High efficiency, due to the low energy costs for heating and maintaining the temperature of the coolant up to 75 degrees.
  • An extremely low chance of emergence of an emergency that could not warn automation, water is a continuation of the electrocope, therefore, even when the pipe breaks and leakage of the coolant, the circuit will open and immediately stop heating.
  • Short time reaction of the thermal circuit to changing settings, very fast heating to the required temperature.
  • Resistance to sudden voltage drops in the mains, which can only lead to a temporary drop in the power of the device, but will not turn it off at all.
  • Simplicity of installation.
  • The minimum dimensions and mass in comparison with similar devices of other types allow them to be used in conditions of limited space of a private house or a summer residence.
  • Simplicity of operation.
  • Environmental friendliness.
  • Increased requirements for water quality in the circuit, since the formation of scale or insufficient salt in it can significantly reduce its conductivity, and therefore the power of the entire heating system.
  • Only alternating current of the power grid uses as a power, since direct current causes electrolysis of water, which means that with interruptions with power supply, it will not work, since it cannot be recorded from the battery.
  • Electrical safety standards without fail requires grounding, since with a breakdown of isolation, the chance to get a shock is much higher than that of the tennium devices.
  • Heating the coolant to a temperature of more than 75 degrees negatively affects its effectiveness, and in this case, it begins to excessively consume electricity.
  • The air that enters the chamber with electrodes can serve as a catalyst for corrosion processes in it, by several times reducing the life of the equipment.
  • Water from a single.circuit system is unsuitable for home use, as it is saturated with free ions.
  • For technically correct operation, some knowledge of electrical engineering is required, which will help determine and control the optimal value of the electrical conductivity of water in the circuit during its operation.

Electric boiler for heating a house

Advantages of installing a central electric heater:

  • The use of other types of fuel in parallel with electricity.
  • The ability to integrate into an existing heating system.
  • Savings on heaters.
  • Simplicity of design and maintainability.
  • Savings in the presence of differentiated heating tariffs.
  • Low cost of equipment, the possibility of remote control.
  • Accessibility of technology, the ability to assemble a heater with your own hands.
  • The ability to install a private house and utility rooms in the heating system.
  • The optimal solution in the presence of alternative energy sources: solar panel or wind generator.

There are various methods of implementing an electric boiler, but any contains three components:

Differences in electric boilers, as a rule, these are variations of these parameters and options.

The main stages of work on creating a boiler

There is a certain sequence of work, which is recommended to be observed in the manufacture of an electric boiler:

pipe of the output of heated water; 2. tank; 3. Ten; 4. cold water input pipe; 5. the upper flange with a sealing gasket; 6. pallet; 7. lower flange; 8. pallet cover; 9. the bottom of the reservoir (the foundation of the heater); 10. hole for electrosnur; 11. laying

  • It is important to ground and subsequent installation of the boiler to eliminate static electricity.
  • It is required to ensure fluid circulation by its heating temperature.
  • It is necessary to prepare effective materials for radiators that perfectly interact with water.

After that, you can proceed to the technological process. A small container to one of the ends of the pipe is joined by a conventional welding machine. An electrode is built on the back, which must reach the bottom. After that, the pipe on both sides is brewed.

Important! Before welding, it is recommended to pour approximately 0.7 liters of water, only then mount the electrode.

The pipe is fixed in the surface of the wall with a small slope, after which ground is done. After that, the phase is supplied to the case. The next step will be the inclusion of a conventional voltage equal to 220 W. The power of this device will be adjusted using a pressure gauge, which must be connected through a special three.way tap.

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The boiler obtained as a result will heat up to a temperature of 120 degrees. At the same time, the level of closing the system completely excludes the formation of corrosion in the inner part of the pipe. This significantly increases the total operating time of the device, moreover, you can not control the overall composition of the liquid.

Installation of a made boiler

Before installing the boiler, you need to choose the most suitable place for it. It should allow the following manipulations correctly and easily:

  • Wiring the necessary pipes of the heating system.
  • It is convenient to connect.
  • Control the process of work.
  • Service and carry out repair work if necessary.

To achieve such a goal, it is necessary to previously draw up a detailed scheme for placing the radiator and wiring all pipes belonging to the heating system. In addition, it is very important to choose the best option for the location of the made boiler. As a rule, such equipment has compact dimensions, because they can be put on the ground floor of a residential building, many are installed in the basement.

Experts recommend tennium boilers on the wall by using special dowels. If we are talking about electrode boilers, they need to be installed on the pipes of the heating system, they can also be fixed to the wall by using clamps. Induction boilers due to their large weight are recommended to be mounted on the floor, strictly in an upright position.

The process of connecting an electric boiler performed by yourself is strictly to a separate machine, which is located in an electric shield and to a grounding contour. The shield should be designed for the highest indicators of the boiler power, and it is advisable to entrust the quality of the grounding circuit to the specialist.

It is quite simple to produce high.quality electric boots with your own hands. All that is required is just to approach the process of assembling as much as possible. The quality of the work performed is very important, since the process of the boiler is based on water circulation, which, if there are problems, can flow. This will automatically lead to serious waste of material means. A responsible approach to the execution of an electric boiler will lead to the fact that it will work as long and efficiently as possible.

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