Boiler temperature setting
When setting the temperature of both water and heating, it is important not to rush to extremes. You should not use the maximum or minimum values. A temperature of 38-39⁰ is good for hot water.
Setting the temperature higher and mixing it with the cold one makes no sense as the boiler heats more effectively than half the temperature, which is then adjusted with a mixer.
If you use a thermostat, it is best to install it in the coldest room, setting the temperature on it so that the house is comfortable.
It is important that it is not affected by nearby heaters and direct sunlight.
Here is such a miracle can go with the boiler.
Whoever says what, but underfloor heating is power. If you compare the heat output area of the radiator and the floor, the advantage is not in favor of the former. And a radiator cools down much faster than a block of concrete.
Having made my home with underfloor heating in all rooms except the bedrooms, I was happy as a cat. And what a pleasure to walk into the bathroom in the morning and step on the warm as a rug tiles.
How to reduce the high gas consumption of a boiler for home heating
Drainage of combustion products of gas from the closed combustion chamber of the Turbo Boiler is forced, fan-smoke pump in the chimney. Air is supplied to the combustion chamber from the street through a duct, due to the rarefaction created by a working fan.
Gas boilers with closed combustion chamber and forced smoke exhaust are equipped with a pressure sensor, which activates when the normal smoke removal and combustion air supply is interrupted, in case of malfunction of the fan.
The smoke and flue duct system of the boiler is conducted either upwards, through the roof, or horizontally through the outer wall of the room where the boiler is installed.
Manufacturers of turbo boilers recommend to choose one of two basic schemes for arrangement of smoke/air duct system:
- Concentric coaxial tube-in-tube system. where the exhaust of the combustion products is conducted through an inner metal pipe inside another pipe of a larger diameter. The air supply for combustion in this case is realised by means of an annular gap between the pipes.
- A split flue system, where the exhaust of combustion gases is carried out through one flue and the supply of combustion air from the open air is carried out through another separate flue.
The requirements for the arrangement of the smoke/air duct system are outlined in the installation and operation instructions of the boiler.
Do not exceed the maximum possible length of the smoke/air duct system. If the flue/flue system is too long or there are too many bends, the total aerodynamic resistance of the flue/flue system is too great. Fan will not be able to supply the burner with the required amount of air.
Sections of the chimney outside the building or passing inside unheated room longer than 1 m., must be thermally insulated. This will reduce the condensation in the pipes.
In the vertical parts of the chimney must be installed condensate trap. catch the condensate formed in the chimney, with drainage of condensate into the sewer. Horizontal sections of the pipes for flue gas discharge and combustion air inlet should be laid with an inclination of 1.2 % to the side of the boiler.
Coaxial flue ducting for gas boilers. L. see installation manual. 1. O-ring; 2. Throttling insert in the fan throat.
Chimney throttling insert saves gas
With short flue/air duct lengths the aerodynamic resistance of the system is small. As a result, the amount of air sucked into the burner by the fan can be excessive.
To increase the aerodynamic resistance of the system and reduce the amount of air supplied to the burner, in turbo boilers, it is necessary to install a throttling insert. a diaphragm, diffuser. In addition, the throttling insert reduces the impact of wind on the burner operation through the smoke exhaust system.
The throttling insert can be used to adjust the optimum air supply also in other cases.
If a combustion gas analyser which measures the excess air in the flue gases of a boiler operating at maximum output is hired, the throttling insert can be used to achieve an optimum air supply into the boiler.
Optimal combustion parameters are achieved with values of excess air ratio around 1.7-1.8. Values of excess air over 1.8 indicate that excess air is flowing through the boiler.
Correctly installed throttling insert saves gas.
Boiler with gas/air regulator uses less gas
How to save gas using your central heating boiler.
Schematic diagram of the construction and operation of a boiler with automatic regulation of the optimum air/gas ratio with a Honeywell VK42 gas valve. / VK82. SERIES
You can find gas boilers on sale (in the.ч. double-circuit) for heating private houses and apartments, equipped with an automatic, optimal air/gas ratio regulator.
In the picture, the gas flow rate is controlled by the gas valve, depending on the amount of air supplied by the fan to the boiler burner. To change the boiler output, the automatics regulates the amount of air, and the gas flow rate already changes depending on the amount of air. The gas flow rate adjusts to the air flow rate. This allows you to get an optimal ratio of gas to air for combustion throughout the boiler output range. The efficiency of the boiler increases, especially when operating at low output. This is important, since most of the time the boilers operate at reduced power.
There are gas boilers, in which the reverse algorithm of gas / air control is implemented. The output of the boiler is controlled by the gas flow rate, and depending on the gas flow rate the automatics changes the amount of air.
The condensing boiler saves gas
Operating diagram and arrangement of the condensing gas boiler
How a condensing boiler works
During the chemical reaction of gas combustion in the boiler burner two main products are formed. carbon dioxide CO2 and water H2O. in the form of steam. Combustion gases heated to a high temperature, which in addition include other gases from the atmospheric air, give part of the heat to the heating water in the primary heat exchanger. The flue gases are cooled, but their temperature, including water vapor, remains quite high after the heat exchanger. In a conventional boiler the heat of the flue gases escapes into the chimney and outdoors.
In a condensing boiler, after the primary heat exchanger, the flue gases pass through another, condensing heat exchanger. The heating water from the system is first passed through the condensing heat exchanger, heated there, and then fed to the primary heat exchanger, where it is finally heated to the desired temperature.
It is known from school physics course that the process of condensation of water vapor, which is contained in large quantities in the combustion products, is accompanied by emission of significant amount of heat. In order to obtain the greatest amount of heat from the flue gases, the temperature regime of the condensing heat exchanger is selected so that on its surface the conversion of steam into water takes place.
The active conversion of steam into water in the condensing heat exchanger takes place when heating water of max. 50 °C is fed into the exchanger. For this reason, condensing boilers work effectively only in systems of low-temperature heating, with warm floors or with radiators operating in a standard mode of soft heat 55/45 oC or 50/30 oC. Many owners do not attach due importance to this condition. As a result, the purchase of a condensing boiler brings them disappointment. They do not get the expected gas savings.
To switch from standard mode to soft heat, the capacity (size) of radiators will have to increase by about 2 times. Accordingly the costs of the heating system will also increase.
During condensation, the water reacts with other combustion products and turns into an acid solution. Therefore, heat exchangers and other parts of the boiler that are in contact with condensate must be made of stainless steel.
By using the higher heat of combustion of gas (i.e. the heat of combustion and the heat of condensation of water vapor), the efficiency of the condensing gas boiler is 11. 13% higher than that of a conventional boiler.
Gas alarms save gas
The system of automatic control of gas and protection against gas leaks in the boiler room of a private home: 1. carbon monoxide alarm, 2. Alarm for natural gas, 3. Stop valve on the gas pipeline, 4. gas boiler, 5. detector in the house, alerts the residents of the house light and sound.
As of 2016, the building regulations (paragraph 6.5.7 SP 60.13330.2016) require that methane and carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide, CO) gas alarms be installed in new residential buildings and apartments with gas boilers, water heaters, stoves and other gas equipment. For already constructed buildings this requirement can be considered as a recommendation.
The methane gas alarm serves as a sensor for natural or liquefied gas leakage from household gas equipment. The carbon monoxide alarm is triggered in the event of a malfunction in the chimney system and flue gas entering the room. Installation of gas alarms allows you to time to notice gas leaks and violations in the work of the smoke exhaust circuit of the boiler.
Gas detectors must be triggered when the gas concentration in the room, equal to 10% NKPR (lower flame spread concentration limit) of natural gas and the content of CO in the air more than 20 mg/m3. Gas detectors shall operate quick-acting shut-off valves installed at the gas inlet to the premises and shut off the gas supply at the signal of the gas detector.
Gass control systems with automatic shutoff of gas supply in residential buildings should be provided when installing gas equipment regardless of its location and capacity.
Filter on the heating system return pipe reduces the gas flow rate
Using the boiler with a heating system the coolant of which is mechanically polluted (sludge, dirt, remnants of installation material) may result in deposits of dirt, rust particles and scale on the internal surface of the heat exchanger. This leads to a disturbance of the heat transfer process and consequently to an increase in gas consumption. In addition, overheating of the heat exchanger tubes and the resulting premature failure of the heat exchanger can occur.
After installation or repair of the heating system it is recommended to flush the heating system with special chemicals followed by a corrosion inhibitor.
Steel pipes and radiators in the heating system should be replaced with new ones that do not corrode.
It is not recommended to leave the heating system without water for a long period of time. Steel parts in a system without water inside will rust intensely. Fresh water filled into the system contains oxygen, which will add its portion of corrosion.
The walls of ordinary plastic water pipes are gas permeable. Heating water in these pipes is constantly saturated with oxygen from the air. Therefore it is recommended to use special plastic pipes with protective gas-tight layer in heating systems (metal-plastic and others).). Polymeric pipes used in heating systems must have an oxygen permeability of not more than 0.1 g/(m3-d).
Sludge, dirt, corrosion products get into the heating water during installation, repair, water filling of the heating system, as well as formed there constantly during operation.
To protect the parts of the boiler from dirt, on the return pipe of the heating system before the boiler, be sure to install a filter for mechanical purification.
FMM filter (magnetic mesh sleeve filter). The filter is installed at the heating water inlet to the boiler, with the lid facing downwards horizontally in a way that the direction of the fluid flow corresponds to the arrow on the filter body. It is recommended that a shut-off valve be installed upstream and downstream of the filter to allow the filter to be cleaned without draining the heating water.
The mesh and magnetic system are installed inside the FMM filter body. The stainless steel mesh with the mesh size of 0,50,5 mm serves for catching of mechanical particles from the flow of flowing fluid. The magnetic system is designed for capturing small ferromagnetic inclusions (rust).
For a complete cleaning of the FMM filter, it is necessary to remove the lid, remove the mesh and the magnetic system. It is recommended to use a new gasket when installing the cover afterwards. It is recommended to clean the filter annually, when servicing the boiler.
Other filters, similar in appearance, without magnetic system and (or) with a larger mesh size, are available for sale. Do not make a mistake with the choice.
Some models of boilers have a built-in strainer at the inlet of heating water to the boiler. On the return pipe of the heating system, before the boiler, it is recommended to install an additional filter that is easier to clean than the built-in one.
Two boilers instead of one reduces the gas consumption
Each of the heating boilers has a capacity less than the calculated one for the house. Most of the heating season operates one boiler (gas) in a mode with higher efficiency. Electric boiler backs up the operation of the gas boiler and supplements the power of the gas boiler in cold weather.
When working at minimum output, the boiler efficiency decreases. Some homeowners find it profitable to install two boilers. For example, instead of one 30 kW. They put one 20 kW and the other 10 kW. One boiler operates for most of the heating season, both turn on only during the coldest months. Thus, the boiler operation with higher efficiency is ensured during the entire heating season.
In addition, the boilers back each other up. Boiler tends to fail at the most inopportune moment, on weekends or in frosty weather, or when the owners are not at home. For the purpose of reservation of gas supply, the boiler of smaller capacity is sometimes selected for another type of fuel. Such boiler is turned on for a short time, only in frosty weather or for repair of another boiler. Therefore, the reserve boiler can operate on a more expensive fuel.
In frosty weather, one reserve boiler can not provide the thermal comfort in the house. But it won’t let you freeze. Can be tolerated, given that such a coincidence does not happen every year.
Soft heat radiators reduce gas consumption
In the catalogs of manufacturers maximum heating efficiency of radiators is presented for the temperature mode 90/70/20. Where 90 oC is the supply temperature of heating water; 70 oC is the return temperature and 20 oC is the air temperature in the room to be heated.
In dwellings, heating systems with radiators as radiators and steel distribution pipes are usually designed for 80/60/20 temperature rating. Such quite high temperature regime allows to increase heat output of radiators, to choose radiators and pipes of minimum size and thus reduce their cost.
In modern radiator heating systems with plastic pipes are usually used temperature mode 75/65/20 that is more favorable for the pipes.
In the figure above is the standard temperature mode of the radiator in systems with plastic pipes. Bottom. maximum radiator temperatures for comfortable mild heat.
If the aim is to save money on heating costs, it turns out that in the radiator heating systems it is advantageous to use the regime with lower temperatures. For example, the European standard of soft heat 55/45/20.
It is known that the greater the difference between the temperature of gases in the boiler burner and the temperature of water in the heat exchanger, the more intense the heat transfer process from hot to cold. The lower the temperature of flue gases, the more heat remains in the house and less goes down the chimney.
A milder temperature regime also makes it easier to arrange a combined heating system with radiators and underfloor heating. Thermal comfort in the house with soft heat radiators becomes more pleasant for the person.
The main advantage of low-temperature heating is the possibility of using modern technology. We are talking about condensing boilers, solar collectors and heat pumps. They require that the system has a low heating water temperature.
True, in order to switch from standard mode to soft heat, the capacity (size) of the radiator will have to be increased by about 2 times.
The right meter on the gas pipe saves gas
Household gas meters, as a rule, do not have pressure and temperature sensors, and do not adjust their readings when these parameters change in the gas pipe.
The quantity of gas is determined by its mass and measured in units of g, kg, or t. Calorific value. the amount of thermal energy released during combustion of gas also depends on the mass of gas burned.
But the gas meter on the pipe does not count the mass of gas, but the volumetric flow rate of gas in m3 that has passed through the meter. And from school physics course we know that the quantity of gas, kg, in 1 m3. Very much depends on the pressure and temperature of gas at the moment of passing through the meter.
It is customary to convert the results of volumetric flow rate measurements to the same standard conditions: pressure 101.325 kPa (760 mm/mm3 ) and to apply a pressure of 0.4 bar (5 mbar).Hg.st.), gas temperature 20 °C.
Thus, a cubic meter for gas metering and billing purposes is the amount of dry gas that takes up the space of one cubic meter at a temperature of 20 oC and an absolute pressure of 101.325 kPa.
Industrial gas meters are equipped with pressure and temperature sensors that make it possible to take this relationship into account and determine the amount of gas consumed under standard conditions with a high accuracy.
Household gas meters generally do not have pressure and temperature sensors, and do not adjust their readings when these parameters change in the gas pipe. The non-corrected gas meter shows the gas consumption at operating conditions (t.е. pressure and temperature are different from the standard).
It is considered that in a low pressure gas network (less than 0.05 bar or 5 kPa) gas services by technical means should limit pressure fluctuations in the gas network in a fairly narrow range, within 15 mbar. Therefore, the effect of these pressure changes on the accuracy of gas flow detection can be neglected. And to bring the flow meter readings to standard pressure conditions, a constant correction factor is used.
Use the pressure correction for household appliances is not considered beneficial also because such meters are expensive, less reliable and difficult to operate.
But is it all so in real life?
The actual gas distribution networks often have a great length and insufficient capacity, which leads to significant pressure fluctuations in the long sections of the network when the gas consumption changes. Seasonal pressure fluctuations are particularly great, especially in frosty weather, when gas consumption sharply increases.
The norm is to have a maximum dynamic gas pressure of 25 mbar (255 mm) in the supply line.water.st). If you are lucky and it is really true, the gas meter will display a gas flow rate that is almost identical to the real one. Т.е. the measurement error will be negligible.
If your neighbor is unlucky and has a dynamic pressure in the gas supply pipe at a minimum of 15 mbar., all other things being equal, the meter will show a consumption higher than the real gas consumption by about 12%. Т.е. if the actual consumption is 1 m3, the meter will show the result 1,12 m3. And if in frosty weather the pressure in a gas pipe drops below normal, for example, to 11 mbar, the gas meter instead of actually consumed 1 cubic meter of gas will show an increase of even more.
The lower the pressure in the gas network, the more profitable for the gas business. They do not advertise this kind of profit. The population is not offered any options for pressure correction. And the population doesn’t require it.
This is not the case with adjusting the readings of household meters to standard temperature conditions. Gas meters without temperature correction underestimate gas consumption in winter time. In order not to lose income, gas businessmen have invented and approved temperature coefficients.
To bring it to standard conditions, the amount of gas passing through the meter without a thermal corrector is multiplied by the temperature coefficient. The size of the coefficient is approved for each region.
It is worth explaining separately that the temperature coefficient is applied only to the readings of meters installed outside the heated rooms (outdoors). Since they receive gas, either cooled by winter temperatures or “heated” by the summer heat. If the metering device is installed in the heated space. in the house, in the apartment. the coefficients do not apply.
For those who have a gas meter outside, the temperature coefficient in the average strip for the summer months is 0.96. 0.98, and in winter about 1.15, and the average for the year is about 1.1. The coefficient is applied on a monthly basis, without taking into account the real temperature of the supplied gas. The amount of gas payable per month is calculated as the product of the gas volume on the meter for a given month and the relevant temperature coefficient.
The gas business pays for the calculation and justification of temperature coefficients. It is clear in whose favor they are calculated.
In order to avoid applying temperature coefficients when paying for gas, it is better to install a meter with a temperature corrector, which will automatically determine the gas consumption according to its actual temperature. It is especially relevant to those who consume large quantities of gas, for example, for heating a house and hot water. The meter with a thermal corrector is often marked with the letter “T” in the model name of the meter, for example BK-G4T.
Quality gas in the gas pipe reduces gas consumption
The amount of thermal energy released by the combustion of gas depends on the quality of gas. The natural gas that comes into the boiler from the gas pipe is not homogeneous in composition. In addition to methane, it may contain other combustible gases, as well as water vapor, atmospheric air gases and other impurities. Depending on the ratio of these components, the heat of combustion and consumption of gas changes.
Standards allow for some variations in gas quality parameters. In addition, in some cases, the quality of gas may be worse than the established standards. You, as a consumer, have no way to control or influence the quality of gas supplied from the gas grid to the boiler. I don’t know whether this fact violates the rights of the consumer. But you should understand that the gas consumption today and yesterday may be different, because the quality of gas has changed.
How to reduce the capacity of the gas boiler: the best options to reduce gas consumption by the boiler
The heating system in the house (apartment) is needed to maintain a comfortable temperature. Incorrectly working, ill-adjusted boiler, some other problems in the heating system can lead to unreasonably high, uneconomical fuel consumption and premature withdrawal of the unit from working condition.
Why the house high gas consumption
High gas consumption in the home heater can have different reasons. It is known that a floor standing unit is more uneconomical. It loses a lot to wall-mounted options. In addition, an improperly designed smoke exhaust system (for example, made of bricks, ferrous metals or uninsulated stainless steel pipes) can worsen the situation. To learn more about the places through which the heat leaves the house you can use a special device thermal imaging.
How to adjust the gas boiler to lower gas consumption
When the causes of high gas consumption are identified, you can begin to eliminate them. There are several ways to solve the problem. Let’s consider the most common ones.
Reduce the boiler power manually or in automatic mode
When the boiler is working at too high power, you can simply reduce this parameter manually, but modern heaters allow you to do this also in automatic mode.
If your heater has a simulated gas burner, such a unit is likely to be set at a certain nominal operating power, which should be reduced to obtain a positive effect of fuel savings. Automatically regulate the reduction of gas consumption will help room or radiator thermostat. it will help reduce power when the air temperature rises.
Properly design the ventilation and smoke exhaust system
Reduce gas consumption of the gas boiler can be achieved by correcting errors in the construction of pipes that discharge products of combustion. A chimney system, which is used to remove the products of gas combustion, as well as ventilation, must be properly organized already at the stage of installing the boiler in the house.
In order for these important engineering structures to work correctly, it is necessary to adhere to current sanitary norms and rules when installing them.
Eliminate the causes of chemical underburning
One of the causes of high gas consumption is the incomplete combustion of fuel, its chemical underburning. This occurs due to a lack of oxygen, so necessary for maintaining the combustion process. It is worth checking the chimney for blockage. a large amount of soot deposited on the walls of the pipes will interfere with normal combustion.
Bad smoke evacuation process also has a negative impact, because the exhaust gases in this case occupy the place where there should be clean air.
Eliminate the causes of mechanical underburning
Mechanical underburning of gas is caused by too high draught of the boiler and the wrong setting of its performance. It turns out too well working chimney system can cause rapid removal of unburned gas together with the products of its combustion. In this case it will be enough to partially close the chimney.
Cleaning the heat exchanger and coolant
Water is the heat transfer medium in a gas-fired heater. It constantly flows through the heat exchanger, providing heating to the rooms of the house. If the exchanger is contaminated with water, there is a layer of limescale that must be removed. You can reduce the gas flow in the boiler by cleaning the heat exchanger. After cleaning this important part of the heating system heat exchange properties will be restored and the boiler will not consume so much gas.
How else to effectively reduce gas consumption
There are several other ways to save gas consumed by the boiler. This can be a complete replacement of equipment or adding special devices to the system.
Connect the thermostat and outdoor temperature sensor to the boiler
Due to the constantly changing outdoor temperature, as well as the wind direction and intensity the temperature in the rooms of the house or apartments is constantly changing. This is best solved by connecting a thermostat, which will adjust the temperature of water, acting as a coolant in pipes.
It is also necessary to install a special outdoor temperature sensor. In this case, the water heater will quickly respond to temperature changes outside the house, reducing or increasing its power.
Use of integrated boiler temperature regulators
An intelligent, i.e. programmable, electronic thermostat allows to perform settings in several heating modes (e.g. economy, comfort, etc.). In addition, such a progressive regulator can work in tandem with a temperature sensor, which further enhances the effect of gas savings.
Install a water heater for DHW
If the boiler operates simultaneously for heating and hot water, you can install a boiler for DHW. Thus the boiler will heat the living and other rooms of the house, and the boiler will heat water for domestic needs (hot water).
Use a gas boiler with an open combustion chamber
If you have a turbo boiler operating in your home, t. е. device equipped with a closed combustion chamber, you may want to consider replacing it with an atmospheric. Atmo-boiler, that is, the unit, equipped with an open combustion chamber, has a higher efficiency. This is due to the fact that in such heaters (unlike the turbo type variants) there is no permanently running fan, which contributes to the circulation of air in the system. Together with the usefulness of such a unit contributes to significant heat loss, due to which the consumption of gas for heating unreasonably increases.
The presence of a throttle insert in the chimney
If the amount of air sucked into the burner becomes excessive, this problem is easily solved by inserting a diaphragm in the chimney. It is also called a diffuser or throttle insert.
This element will also reduce the effect of wind on the normal functioning of the gas burner.
Using a condensing boiler
How to use the gas boiler economically? Buy a condensing variant. unlike a conventional boiler, the water in a condensing unit passes through an additional heat exchanger, preheating in it. With the right mode of operation, the exchanger of such a heater contributes to the active conversion of steam into water. Due to the fact that the process takes place at a temperature of water supply, which is equal to 50 0 C, such a device can be used for low-temperature heating.
Installation of two boilers instead of one
Installation of 2 boilers instead of 1 can help save on gas heating. This is sensible because during the off-season can be turned on only one unit, and the second in this case is connected to work when the air temperature drops in a particularly cold winter period.
Also, having two heating devices at once, you can not be afraid of an unexpected breakdown of one of them.
Installing a filter on the gas pipe
The boiler consumes gas that contains solid particles and other foreign substances. It can be soot, tarry substances getting into the valve and disturbing its work. The solution in this case is to install the filter on the gas pipe. The best place to install it is in front of the gas meter, because it also needs to be protected from contamination.
Saving by using a gas meter
You can save not only on the boiler, but also through the correct use of the gas meter. Since common household meter measures the volume of gas that passes through the pipe, the temperature and pressure changes of this fuel are not taken into account in any way. It turns out that the meter may not show the real consumption of gas, but increased. The situation can be saved by installing a meter with a thermal corrector.
Using a single-circuit boiler with a boiler instead of a two-circuit
It is known that different types of boilers consume different amounts of gas. In order to use resources of such heater for home heating system more effectively it is better to use a single-circuit boiler and a separately installed boiler instead of a double circuit unit. Knowing this feature of the boiler system, many manufacturers produce complete kits, consisting of a boiler and remote or built-in boiler.
Using a room thermostat and a heat regulator on radiators
If you install a room or radiator thermostat you will notice that the boiler starts to consume less gas at the same constant temperature in the house (regulation can be done manually or automatically). The unit can become so energy efficient that it will not turn on at all for half a day.
This is due to the precise regulation of air temperature, for which the thermostat will be responsible, because every “extra” degree of temperature in the room leads to an increase in gas consumption.
Insulation of an apartment or a house
You can also set the average optimal cycling time or correct cycling of heater operation by additional insulation of heated rooms. It is not enough to heat the living rooms well, you also need to save and retain heat inside the house or apartment.
You should check the windows, doors and other structural elements of the heated building or room to determine where it is necessary to stop the heat coming out. The most convenient way to do this is to use an infrared camera, a special device that “sees” the temperature of the surrounding objects.
Choosing an economical gas boiler
Many boilers offered in the market, have a minimum capacity of 8 kilowatts. Despite this, the most optimal, economical for most households is a unit with even less power, which is about 5 kW or lower. This is true for small private houses and regular size apartments. Choose the most accurate economical boiler for a particular home will help professional expertise, including an assessment of ceiling height, age of the house, the number of floors (more true for apartment buildings) and other parameters.
Disadvantages of overcapacity boilers, work in the clock mode and increased consumption
The tact mode or excessive cycling of a powerful heater is that the unit produces too much heat that the weaker heating circuit can not take. Because of this, the water temperature increases rapidly, which leads to a constant shutdown of the boiler. This leads to increased consumption (flow) of gas and insufficient heating of batteries (heating radiators). If the boiler is constantly running, but at a suitable output, this problem can be avoided. In addition, the wear and tear of this equipment will be greatly reduced.
One or more of the above methods of reducing gas consumption in a private home or apartment will reduce fuel consumption and increase the useful life of the boiler. You just need to assess which option is right for you: replacing the unit, installing the thermostat, cleaning the heat exchanger or competent installation of a smoke evacuation system.
Insulate your home
The amount of gas consumed by the boiler depends on how well the building keeps heat. If the walls in it are thin, the windows have gaps, it will all lead to heat loss.
Therefore, the gas boiler will constantly work to maintain the desired temperature. To reduce this figure and save the amount of gas, you need to carefully insulate every corner of the building, from the bearing walls, to the ceiling and windows.
There are a lot of options for insulation, and you can choose the best one only according to the specific parameters of the house.
Insulated mechanism with the corrector will recalculate your costs, taking into account the temperature, pressure in the pipe itself, and in the atmosphere. For insulation any material can be used. Important tip: If you decide to insulate the meter and the pipe that goes into it. Do not damage the seal!
heat goes into the pipe, if the primary heat exchanger of the boiler is clogged with soot on the outside and inside. scale and rust. Gas consumption increases if the gas pipe pressure is low or if poor quality gas is supplied. There can be many reasons.
How to save gas at home
Install a gas meter. With this device you can control your gas consumption on a regular basis, and you can analyze, reduce and optimize costs. If the gas consumption is high and the gas stove is used actively, use devices marked G-1,6. If you have a gas water heater, a model with G-2,5 is suitable.
The figures in the marking of the meter indicates the minimum capacity of the device. The G-1.6 meter allows 1.6-2.5 m3 gas, the G-2.5 meter allows 2.5-4 m3 and so on.
When using a gas boiler to heat water, install an economical shower head and faucet. It’s more economical to wash in a shower than in a full bathtub. The shower wastes 80 liters of water in five minutes. This volume is not enough to fill even half of a standard bathtub.
To wash dishes, it’s better to fill the sink with water and wash items in that water. A suitable option would be to use a sink with two trays, where in one you wash dishes, and in the other. rinse in clean water. These tips can help you not only reduce gas costs, but also save water in your home or apartment.
The most economical heating boilers
How to reduce gas consumption in the heating system? First of all, you need to choose a device that is suitable for your home. Why it works this way? Because only taking into account the area of the room, the material of the walls, the number of windows and other factors, you can calculate the necessary power and capacity of the boiler. Only then will the technique will effectively give heat without wasting unnecessary energy.
If you want to save on gas consumption, then connect only to the common main. Using cylinders is very expensive. What criteria affect savings:
- Constructive features;
- Coefficient of performance (efficiency);
- Power of the technique;
- The quality of fuel;
- Optimal mode.
How the appliance is constructed
Heating boilers are available with one and two circuits. Single-circuit device is designed only for space heating, and for hot water supply (DHW) will have to additionally connect the boiler. And the two-circuit models already include everything you need for both home heating and DHW.
To calculate savings, consider the type of combustion chamber. The open chamber takes in air from the room to maintain combustion and exhaust gases. Closed, forcing air from the street. Drainage of combustion products is carried out by the fan. This principle promotes complete combustion of the fuel as well as minimal CO2 emission.
Closed appliances are connected to a coaxial chimney. Its tube-in-tube design retains more heat. Therefore, the air from the street is heated, which increases the efficiency of combustion.
Influence of the efficiency
Today the market offers the buyer convection and condensing boilers. Which is more economical?? It is considered to be a condensation boiler, since it uses the energy of the condensate. If you take into account the extra energy, a conventional unit has an efficiency of 92-94% and a condensing unit has an efficiency of 100-102%.
The standard operation consists of combustion of fuel and removal of gases to the outside, which have a high temperature. Combustion products contain impurities and moisture. Passing through the heat exchanger, the gases reach 60 °. Because of this, sludge precipitates and accumulates in the tank. In the process, energy is released, which is used by the condensing appliance. It is believed that you can save up to 20% of fuel. But there is a pitfall here, too. Such units are installed to low-temperature underfloor heating systems.
There are also a number of other nuances, which we described in the article “What is a gas condensing boiler “.
What affects the efficiency of a convection boiler:
- Physical underburning. When air is burned instead of gas. Affects the quality of the fuel;
- Chemical underburning. Depends on the amount of carbon monoxide in the combustion process;
- Poor insulation, wall insulation.
- Clean the system at least once a year. Remove scale from the heat exchanger, soot from the burner and tubes;
- Put a damper on the chimney to limit the flow of air;
- Remove soot from the combustion chamber parts, otherwise gas consumption increases.
How to save gas on your stove and gas stove
The easiest way to save gas is through little “tricks” in the kitchen that, when used consistently, become a useful habit:
Avoid excessive boiling of liquid
When cooking with gas, you should pay attention to the size of the burner flame and not allow it to heat the walls of the pot. The highest temperature is on the tongues of the flame, therefore, to heat the cookware quickly, the fire should be placed directly under the bottom of the container. During the cooking process, you need to adjust the flame according to the stages of cooking
So, for boiling water the fire can be high, but afterwards you can reduce the intensity of the fire by at least half.
Useful tip: covering the pan with a lid: it cooks the food quicker and uses less gas!
Similar bottom design quickly heats the entire surface from the center to the edges, while consuming a minimum amount of gasTo save fuel on heating water it is advisable to use a special cookware for gas stoves:
- pots with special grooves on the bottom that retain the temperature for some time after turning off the stove;
- kettles with a whistle, which will warn you in time that the water is boiling, and will not allow you to use extra gas.
If the blue energy carrier is used to heat the column, the installation of economical shower heads can help save it. Also increases the consumption of hot water filling the bathroom: just replace this procedure by taking a shower and you can get a significant savings in gas.
What is needed to reduce the gas consumption of the boiler for heating
The task of the heating system is to maintain a comfortable temperature in the house. To do this, the heat energy that is released during the combustion of gas in the boiler is constantly spent to compensate for the heat loss of the house.
Gas is consumed to make up for the heat loss in the house:
With the hot water runoff into the sewer. Losses in the heating system itself.How to reduce high gas consumption and heat loss associated with the operation of the heating system
In this article we will consider how to reduce heat loss associated with the operation of the heating system. How to reduce the high gas consumption of the boiler for home heating.
A heating boiler in a private home most often supplies heating energy to two heat consumers:
Heat consumption of the heating system
The heating system replenishes heat losses in the building and maintains a comfortable room temperature. Heat consumers in the heating system of a detached house are usually circuits with radiators and underfloor heating.
The heating system does not consume thermal energy all year round, but only during heating periods. over, the amount of energy consumed is not constant, but depends on fluctuations in the outside air temperature during the heating season.
Heat energy for heating is continuously consumed, but the amount of energy consumed is constantly changing. The maximum amount of energy consumed may differ from the minimum consumption by a factor of ten or more.
Based on the above, the ideal source of thermal energy for heating a private home must meet the following requirements:
- Produce heat energy continuously, without interruptions.
- Have a maximum capacity that is sufficient to compensate for the heat loss of the house in the lowest outside temperatures.
- Have the ability to regulate the amount of heat produced from the maximum value to the minimum, varying by a factor of 10 or more.
It should be noted that ideal heating boilers that meet all these requirements, you will not find on sale.
My gas consumption is high and my neighbor’s is low. What to do?
You should not compare your gas consumption with what your neighbor says. You never know what people are saying. Miracles don’t happen.
Think about where the heat that is produced in the boiler burner during combustion of gas can go? The heat from the boiler may only escape into the heat exchanger and then into the heating system or with the flue gases into the chimney and outdoors.
How can you compare the gas consumption today and yesterday if the weather (temperature, wind) is always different?
The construction of houses is also different. Your home may be losing more heat than your neighbor’s due to, for example, thicker insulation in the ceiling. You yourself have seen the thickness of your neighbor’s insulation?
Maybe your neighbor’s boiler is controlled by a room thermostat and he keeps a lower temperature in the house than you do?
Or he’s got a different way of venting.
heat goes down the drain if the boiler primary heat exchanger is clogged with soot, limescale and rust on the outside. inside.
Gas consumption increases if your gas pipe has low pressure or if your gas supply is of poor quality.
There could be many reasons. Or most likely his neighbor is just a braggart and wants to show his superiority.
To reduce gas consumption, you have to act on many fronts, reducing consumption bit by bit.
The consumption of gas depends on the thermal protection of the house, the temperature outside, the efficiency of the boiler, the accuracy of temperature maintenance in the room. Boiler operation at minimum power, cyclic operation. all this reduces the efficiency of the heating system.
Choosing an economical gas boiler
Building regulations do not recommend installing boilers with a useful capacity that significantly exceeds the capacity of the heating system in the house or apartment.
For example, in the service manual of the Protherm Gepard 23 MTV double circuit boiler is indicated its efficiency in heating mode: 93.2% at maximum thermal capacity (23.3 kW).) and 79.4% at minimum output (8.5 kW).) Imagine how much lower the COP would be if this boiler had to work with a heating system with a capacity of e.g. 4 kW.
Note that the boiler during the year most of the time working at minimum output. At least 1/4 of the gas consumed for heating will literally fly uselessly into the pipe. This will be payback for installing too powerful equipment for heating and hot water in the house.
Pulse operation mode, boiler stroke
A large difference between the capacity of the gas boiler and the capacity of heaters, among other disadvantages, leads to the boiler operation in pulse mode.
Excessive cyclic, impulsive operation, or as they say, “boiler churning” is manifested in the fact that the boiler produces more thermal energy per unit time than less powerful heating circuit can take. Therefore, the water temperature at the outlet of the boiler rises quickly and the boiler shuts down before it has time to heat the radiators.
The boiler burner shuts down quickly after switching on when the set temperature in the straight pipe at the boiler outlet is reached. But the radiators in this case remain unheated to this set temperature. the water heated in the boiler simply does not have time to reach the radiators.
After a short time, the circulating pump supplies the heat exchanger with the remaining cool water from the return pipe of the heating system, and the burner turns on again. Then it’s done all over again.
Coiling reduces the service life of the boiler and increases gas consumption
The increased number of starts as a result of cycling, most eats up the resource of very expensive parts of the boiler. gas and three-way valves, circulating pump, flue gas fan.
To ignite at the moment of startup, the burner is supplied with the maximum amount of gas. Part of the gas, until the flame appears, literally flies into the pipe. Constant “restarting” of the burner further increases gas consumption and reduces the efficiency of the boiler.
Operation in “clocking” significantly reduces the life of the boiler parts, significantly reduces the efficiency.
Many manufacturers produce two-circuit gas boilers with maximum capacity of about 12 kW. and a minimum of less than 4 kW. Such boilers are best suited to the needs of heating and DHW systems of small private houses and apartments. However, the amateur approach. the more powerful the better, makes many boilers with power of 24 kW, and even 30 kW.
For preparation of hot water and heating homes and apartments with heated area up to 120 m2, with one bathroom, I recommend installing two-circuit gas boilers with a maximum capacity of 12 kW.
A boiler with a hot water boiler reduces gas consumption
The system of heating and DHW with a two-circuit gas boiler is popular due to its relatively low cost, simplicity and small size. However, it has significant drawbacks that lead to increased gas and water consumption, reducing the comfort of using hot water.
Wall mounted gas boiler with a boiler. the best option for the organization of heating and DHW in a house or apartment.
For houses and apartments of large size, an area of more than 120 m2, it is highly recommended to use a system of DHW with a boiler layer-by-layer heating and double boiler, or with a boiler with indirect heating and single-circuit boiler.
Gas boiler with open combustion chamber saves gas
Compare the efficiency of gas boilers of the same capacity and brand, but with different types of combustion chamber, with an open combustion chamber (atmo) and with a closed (turbo). Find that atmo boilers have a higher efficiency than turbo boilers.
In turbo boilers, as a result of the constant work of the fan, an excessive amount of air escapes through the combustion chamber and further into the chimney. And with the air the heat is lost and the gas consumption increases.
In addition, in turbo boilers we have an additional power consumption for the operation of the fan in the smoke evacuation system.
In a private home it is advantageous to provide in advance, at the construction stage, a chimney device for a gas boiler atmo with an open combustion chamber.
To increase the efficiency of turbo boilers, some manufacturers equip the boiler with a modulating turbocharger system. The fan of such a boiler changes its rotation speed according to the signal of the sensor. As a result, exactly the amount of air needed to burn the amount of gas supplied to the burner is fed into the combustion chamber. Lack of combustion air or excess combustion air minimises heat and gas losses through the smoke evacuation system. Modulated turbo blowers are usually equipped with luxury boilers.
Proper air supply and smoke evacuation reduces gas consumption
12÷14 m3 of air? For example, a 18 kW boiler with a nominal gas consumption of 1.93 m3 /h requires air for combustion
When there is a lack of combustion air, the gas-air mixture does not combust completely. This mode leads to a sharp decrease in the amount of heat released during combustion and to intensive soot formation. Soot settles on the heat exchanger and can completely clog the gaps between the fins of the heat exchanger in a short time.
Incomplete combustion of gas reduces the heat release and soot pollution of the heat exchanger makes it difficult to transfer the heat from the burned gas to the heating water in it. All this leads to an increase in gas consumption by the boiler.
Excess air flowing through the boiler burner uselessly takes away with it and carries some heat to the chimney, which also increases the gas consumption.
In order to reduce gas consumption, it is necessary to ensure that the boiler is supplied with the optimal amount of air for combustion.
To make the right air and smoke removal system, as well as to perform its maintenance in time.
Defects in the system may for a long time remain unnoticed by the owners, but all this time will increase gas consumption.
When operating a heating system, you should perform an annual, before the heating season begins:
Check the chimney for tightness of seams and joints, for compliance with the recommendations of the manufacturer of the boiler its length and diameter, for absence of obstacles in the chimney (clogging, icing), for blowing and draft support by wind (on the position of the head of the chimney relative to the roof).
Check the free air supply to the burner of the boiler.
On the boiler burner with a lack of air, the flame turns reddish-yellow.
For adjustment and control of the burner and gas exhaust duct of the boiler, it is convenient to refer to the readings of the gas analyzer that measures the excess air in the combustion products of the boiler operating at maximum output.
Optimal combustion parameters are achieved at excess air ratio values of about 1.7-1.8. Values of the excess air ratio above 1.8 indicate that excess air is flowing through the boiler.
The correct ash pan and chimney of an atmo gas boiler
Gas boiler with an open combustion chamber. atmo, draws combustion air directly from the room in which it is installed. Air is drawn into the boiler combustion chamber due to the vacuum created by the force of the draft in the chimney. The worse the draft in the chimney, the less air flows to the burner.
Gas boilers with an open combustion chamber and natural smoke extraction are equipped with a thermostat to control the flue gas escape into the room. The thermostat switches the boiler off when the combustion gases start to enter the room due to an insufficient draft in the chimney.
If the thermostat trips, the boiler will shut down with a corresponding error message (see “Boiler shutdown”). instructions for the respective boiler model). Manual unblocking of the boiler must be carried out not earlier than after 10 min., when the thermostat cools down.
The room in which the boiler is installed must be provided with a constant supply of air. The main consumers of air are the exhaust duct for room ventilation and the burner of the gas boiler atmo, taking the combustion air directly from the room.
A distinction is made between INDEPENDENT air (via air inlets from the street) and RECENT air (via air inlets from an adjacent room).
To ensure that there is enough air for combustion, air supply systems must be made according to certain rules.
Direct outdoor air supply is possible if the boiler is installed in a separate, isolated room. In the boiler room, where the boiler atmo is installed, there must be an air intake from the street of at least 8 cm2 per 1 kW of boiler output. But in any case, the area of the opening must be at least 200 cm2. The hole is placed in the outside wall or outside door.
The air inlet of the boiler room from the street must be as low as possible, not higher than 300 mm. from floor level. This is a prerequisite for boilers using liquefied gas. If natural gas is used and it is not possible to place the hole near the floor in the lower area of the room, it can be made higher, but the usable area must be increased by about 30÷50%.
A grate must be fitted over the opening so as not to reduce its effective area.
Indirect air intake from the adjacent room can be made for an atmo gas boiler with a maximum capacity of no more than 30 kW when the boiler is installed in the household room of the house.
In this case, the combustion uses air that enters the house through the general ventilation system of the building. And the boiler chimney, along with the removal of smoke, acts as an additional exhaust ventilation duct, increasing air exchange in the house during the operation of the boiler.
To bring air into the room with the boiler, from the adjacent room (corridor, hall) arrange a supply air vent. The area of the hole should be determined on the basis of 30 cm2 per 1 kW of boiler power. This can be a vent in the wall or door, or just a gap under the door.
It is categorically unacceptable to install a boiler with an open combustion chamber in the room, where there may be rarefaction as a result of forced ventilation devices. duct fans, kitchen hoods. Operation of such devices can lead to a shortage of air for combustion, the appearance of the chimney back draft and stopping the boiler.
Check if the ventilation system has a good supply of fresh air in the house. This air is also used to burn gas in the boiler atmo.
Chimney of boiler with open combustion chamber. Boilers with an open combustion chamber must be connected to an existing chimney in the building with a natural draught.
The boiler manufacturer usually specifies the chimney requirements in the instructions provided with the boiler.
An atmo boiler chimney must meet the following basic requirements: