How to solder a copper tube of a gas boiler

To solder the speaker with your own hands prepare:

  • A soldering iron or a gas torch.
  • Fine sandpaper or metal brush.
  • Solder. For copper parts use wire PIC-61, which is an alloy of lead with tin.
  • Rag.

How to check the tightness

When you finish soldering the gas columns, you need to check the tightness of all pipes. To do this, they are thoroughly examined to see even the smallest fistulas. their presence is indicated by small green spots. To avoid disassembling the water heater again in the near future, these defects are also cleaned and soldered. After that it is necessary to connect water to the gas water heater with a soldered heat exchanger and open the tap.

Water supply is carried out slowly and gradually to displace the air from the burner. After the whole heating system is filled up, the tap can be opened to its full capacity. This is used to check the strength of soldering points under maximum water pressure. Simultaneously reinspect the soldered joints for water leakage.

At the very end the boiler with a gas boiler is turned on to check its performance in contact with hot water. At the same time you can wipe the solder areas with a dry napkin to detect the slightest signs of moisture.

Burner selection

Tools should be chosen according to the intended use (commercial or private), application (soldering products, cutting, heating, heat treatment, working in the wind), preferred firm (there are famous and not so famous manufacturers from many countries) and financial capabilities. Of course, the higher the price, the better the quality of the torch, but even a not very expensive tool may be enough for private use.

Burner characteristics to consider when selecting a burner:

  • type of burner. with the injector or without it;
  • tool power. the more the better;
  • on what fuel will the burner work. propane, acetylene, etc.д.some burners can work with several types of gas mixtures, but they are less reliable;
  • purpose. for soldering, cutting, etc.п.;
  • The materials with which this torch can be worked.

Tools and appliances

Of course, for soldering copper pipes with your own hands in the standard version, you can use many elements that are not difficult to find in your own home stocks. In the extreme case, you will have to buy special devices to perform the technological process of soldering. So, to make a quality installation of copper products may need:

    Hand-held pipe cutter, which will make a strictly perpendicular cut in the pipe.

  • Chamfering fixture. used to remove various burrs and round off the cut.
  • Expander of pipes can help in many situations without using fittings. To solder, you need to enlarge one end of the pipe to fit the other end.
  • Brushes and brushes help remove oxide residue from the brazed pipe.
  • To make the work safer, a reflector (deflector) of flame should be installed on the torch nozzle to help protect flammable materials near the work site. This prevents heat loss and ensures even heating of the pipe.
  • A gas torch is the basic tool for brazing copper pipes. There are several varieties of burners. from high-performance models to household devices.

installing a 40 gallon electric waterheater soldering copper pipe

According to the power of burners are divided into:

How To Solder Copper Pipe (Complete Guide) Plumbing 101

  • To heat pipes and solder with soft solder.
  • For hard or soft soldering (semi-professional).
  • For brazing with hard solder (professional).
  • A hot air gun can be used to heat easily fusible solder. This tool is able to produce hot air blast up to 650℃.

Methods of soldering pipes and types of solders

The essence of the soldering process is to bind elements of the structure being built up by adding a molten bonding agent. solder. between them. After cooling, the connection is indestructible and the solder fixes the parts firmly.

The melting temperature of the solder must be lower than the corresponding parameters of the fastened parts, and the capillary effect allows reaching an even distribution of solder over the contact area of the parts.

In addition to improving the adhesion (surface adhesion) of the elements, you can use fluxes and pre-clean the surface.

Soldering copper tubes can be carried out in two ways:

  • At low temperature. The method is suitable for domestic installations. Either hard solder heated above 450 ° C, or soft. up to 400 ° C is used.
  • At high temperature. Needed for construction of systems exposed to high loads. The temperature of the solder used reaches 600-900°C.

Soft solders are wires of fusible metals (tin, lead, their alloys; sometimes silver and other elements are added). The diameter of such wire is 2-3 mm.

Hard solder is a rod, characterized by an increased melting temperature and the ability to withstand high pressure during operation of the system.

Self-fluxing copper and phosphorus solders with silver additives are especially popular. Such substances have improved deformation indicators, they are quite heat-resistant (up to 200 ° C), flowable, do not provoke the emergence of corrosion of the connected elements. In addition, such compounds are environmentally friendly. The melting point of copper is reduced to 750°C due to phosphorus; furthermore, the mixture has the same thermal expansion coefficients as copper, which means that the structure will not be subject to overloading at the joints.

Heat Exchanger Repair

If the problem is minor, it is quite possible to repair the heat exchanger with your own hands, and this will not require much effort. Minor scale can be removed from the system with the help of special agents that corrode it. You may have to flush a few times to get the desired result. You can try to solder minor leaks with soldering acid and a powerful soldering iron, or you can use cold welding.

If the problem is not solved by these methods, in this case it is better to entrust the repair of heat exchangers of gas boilers and boilers to specialists who have the necessary experience and equipment to achieve the desired result. In this case, special attention should be paid to the new heat exchanger, which should be of quality and reliability. Let it cost a little more expensive, but in the future it will help to get rid of many problems with the gas boiler.

What you need for soldering

Before starting the work, make sure that the following devices and substances are available:

  • tools for pipe preparation;
  • Flux and solder for brazing copper pipes;
  • A soldering iron, gas torch, or other apparatus for preparing solder.

At the first stage it is necessary to properly prepare the elements of the future construction: with the pipe cutter cut pipes to the required length, using chamfering tools to create even chamfered ends of products without burrs, using pipe expander, adjust the diameter of one pipe so that it fits into the second.

Bevelers are made in the form of pencils or round. The latter option is more convenient, but it costs more, and the maximum diameter of the treated area is 3.6 mm.

Before expanding the pipe, it must be preheated or annealed, otherwise numerous mechanical damages are inevitable, threatening the further tightness of the pipeline.

Clean pipes internally with brushes or soft sponges, externally with brushes.

At the nozzle of the burner for brazing copper pipes is put on the reflector, which helps to avoid heat loss and to prevent ignition of combustible compounds in the vicinity. The brazing surface must be heated evenly.

How to solder the heat exchanger in a gas heater

The water heater coil is subjected to continuous thermal and hydraulic stress. The heat exchanger is directly affected by the open flame of the burner. The temperature of the heater at an open tap DHW quickly reaches 50-100 ° C. In addition to the thermal load on the radiator is most of the hydraulic shock during DHW shutdown.

Another difficulty is that the heated heat exchanger receives cold water. Temperature fluctuations will also adversely affect the performance of the device.

After 6-8 years of intensive exploitation, the low-quality heat exchanger in a gas water heaters burns out because of the constant thermal load and completely fails.

The service life of expensive European models is up to 12 years. Unpleasant situations with the formation of fistulas on the pipes or the fact that the heat exchanger leaked due to burning are minimized because of the quality materials used during production.

The first sign that an immediate repair of the coil is needed. the condensation on the speaker. Initially, there are microcracks on the pipes, which provokes evaporation. At this stage, the repair of the heat exchanger of the gas boiler can get by with little “sacrifice”. It is enough to perform the soldering of the radiator with your own hands, or with the help of specialists from the service center to prolong the life of the boiler for several years.

If the heat exchanger is burned, the only effective method of maintenance will be its replacement. Sign of malfunction: water heater leakage. Fixing a leak with a soldering iron will not be effective. In the best case after repair the boiler will work for a few months more.

You can braze the heat exchanger of a gas water heater at home. The work is carried out in several ways:

  • With a powerful soldering iron. flux and solder for soldering (copper-phosphorus) will be needed. Service centers use ultrasonic treatment of surfaces, which explains the quality of eliminating leaks. Soldering with a 110 watt soldering iron is used at home. To solder a copper radiator at home, follow several steps in the process:

How to Solder Copper Pipe The CORRECT Way | GOT2LEARN

  • Treat the surface with flux, it is better to use a special paste with copper, but the usual rosin will do;
  • heats up the damaged area;
  • Apply solder, it is important that the melting occurred because of the strongly heated surface, but not from the tip of the soldering iron.

When soldering copper tubes with high quality, the top of the fistula is built up with a thickness of 1-2 mm.

  • Burner. the principle of the work and the sequence is the same as when using a soldering iron. To solder the copper tube in the gas boiler it is necessary to treat the surface with flux, heat it with medium intensity fire (so as not to spoil the radiator). Solder melts from the heated area.
  • Cold welding. for repair uses a compound that is designed for use on heating surfaces. Take a small amount of the substance from the package and knead it in your hand, wearing gloves beforehand. As soon as the cold welding starts to solidify it is applied to the location of the fistula and held firmly until it is completely solidified.

Only gas heaters with copper heat exchanger can be restored. Stainless steel is welded only with special welding equipment.

If an independent repair of the copper calorifier could not fix the leaks on the gas heater, you will need to replace the radiator. After the installation of the new coil the life of the boiler will increase by 6-8 years.

Heat Exchangers for the Gas Water Heater Maintenance and Troubleshooting

In order to solder gas water heater you will need:- solder PIC-61;- flux;- soldering iron with power not less than 100W;- fine sandpaper;- solvent;- rags.

Start the soldering of the gas-fired water heater with the preparatory work. Buy only solder brand ПОС-61, as with other solder is more difficult to perform soldering of copper tubes. They are less fluid, more refractory, and their structure is worse. Wire solder is excellent, sometimes it is with rosin filling.

You will also need flux, only choose the one with the inscription “Does not require washing”, “Does not contain acid” or “Corrosion-passive”. This will save you the trouble of repairing gas-fired boilers. Prepare the 100 watt soldering iron, clean the sting from the burned out old flux.

First drain the water in the heat exchanger. Open the hot water tap at the sink, while unscrewing the union nut from the cold water inlet. Because of the difference in water levels in the gas water heater and the kitchen faucet water from the column flows down. Blow out the rest of the water with a compressor or a vacuum cleaner as it will make it harder to heat the soldered copper tubes even with a powerful soldering iron.

Sand the soldering point of the gas water heater with a fine emery cloth. Usually in a place of a fistula copper is oxidized, there is a characteristic spot of a poisonous green shade. After sanding it down with an emery cloth, wipe the surface thoroughly with a cloth and solvent that removes grease stains and dust.Wrap rags around the pipe on both sides so that it cools down less and you can hold it with your hand without getting burned.

Tape the soldering point well. Lubricate it with flux. Enough heated soldering iron dip it into the solder, and move it to the soldering point. The solder will flow off the soldering iron, forming a solid connection with the copper pipe.If the solder is not flowing, but hardening, take the following steps. Use a burner to heat the solder joint on the copper pipes. Wrap this place with a thick rag, heat the soldering iron to 180 degrees and try to heat the solder again. Repeat the procedure several times. Sooner or later the pipe will heat up and the solder will definitely leak.

Tin the wire or the patch in the same manner. Put the patch on, use the soldering iron to warm the pipe, add more solder if needed. Once the solder fills the seam evenly, remove the soldering iron. The repair of the gas water heater is finished. Once everything has cooled down, you can apply water.

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