Let’s get acquainted with the principle of installation of foil floor heating, also called electric mat.
Before we begin the work, we will need to prepare what is necessary:
- The components of our electric mat;
- temperature sensors;
- cutting object (office knife);
- duct tape, preferably masking tape.
- Calculate and measure the coverage area of the film floor.
- Prepare heating elements for installation. Cut the film on a special dotted line (it is important not to break the integrity of the heating elements). Then we mount contact terminals with thermostats and temperature sensors, creating a chain of elements of our floor.
- Work on the preparation of the floor surface. Remove the old flooring and remove all construction debris. It is important to eliminate all visual defects before starting the work. If the floor is made of concrete, it will be necessary to grind out cracks, level all the pits and depressions.
- Once our base is ready, we apply the priming component, then pour a layer of special adhesive mortar. Remove the insulation on the floor until the adhesive dries completely. In the process of work it is possible to cover the surface with special boards or insulating film, this measure will help make the future floor stronger and more reliable. Yes, and the thermal insulation performance will only increase.
- Begin laying the elements of the floor, fixing them with masking tape. In the film (thermal film) it will be necessary to make cuts: under the connection of the contacts and under the main power wire. The main wire is connected to the thermostat, and the starting start of the finished system is made. This step is necessary to make sure that all work is done correctly. If everything is normal, then after a while after turning on the floor will begin to heat.
- Apply a layer of elastic putty or filler.
- Perform a layer with waterproofing properties, to prevent water from penetrating to our warm floor. For greater reliability, some professionals apply not one but two layers with waterproofing properties.
Features of electric flooring
The so-called electric mats, the installation features of which we have considered, are recommended for use without any “but” only for tile or stone surface cladding, PVC, parquet or carpet coatings are acceptable.
When choosing the electric version of the floor heating, keep in mind that one regulator can serve only about 8 squares. In the case of larger areas, you need to install an additional protective relay.
If you do not have special skills, it is recommended to hire qualified craftsmen to connect the warm floor.
Choosing a film floor, it is recommended to pay attention to the brands of flagship manufacturers, especially Swedish, Ukrainian and manufacturers from Denmark.
How to lay pipes for underfloor heating.
On the prepared surface need to lay aluminum foil or polyethylene film.
Along the entire perimeter of the room at a height of 15-20 cm a damper tape is glued, which will compensate for the thermal expansion of the screed with pipes.
Lay a 3-5 cm layer of insulation on top.
As an insulating material you can use polystyrene foam, foam concrete or mineral wool.
The more powerful the underfloor heating, the greater the thickness of this material should be.
Next you need to think about fixing the pipes.
One of two options can be used:
Both methods are equally good and do not require additional surface preparation.
The boards and mesh can be laid directly on top of the insulation.
It is necessary to consider carefully the positioning of the heating circuit of the system, choosing one of two options: snake or coil.
The second is more preferable, since it guarantees uniform distribution of heat over the surface due to the alternation of return and supply pipes.
Piping pitch can be different and is from 10 to 30 cm, depending on the purpose of the floor heating:
- if it is used as an additional heating system. the step is increased;
- If it is used as the main heating system. the step is reduced.
Along the walls and windows, it is recommended to increase the frequency of laying.
If there are items of furniture in the room that will not move anywhere in the future, then under them the pipes can not be laid.
After laying the contour, you need to fix its ends in the collector and pressurize the system.
It involves checking the underfloor heating for leaks and pressure losses.
On one side install a pressure gauge, and on the other side create a pressure of 1-2 atm above the working pressure.
If after a day the readings on the scale have not changed. you can continue to work.
Otherwise you have to look for mistakes.
It is necessary to prepare a concrete screed, using cement grades M300 and above.
In the circuit at the time of filling the mortar must be a coolant under operating pressure.
The thickness of the layer can be from 15 to 70 mm.
After 3-4 weeks, you can proceed to the last stage. finishing.
If the surface is even, then the additional preparatory work is not required, and you can immediately lay the tile on the glue.
We recommend to look video about a laying of a warm waterborne floor with detailed Комментарии и мнения владельцев.
What kind of underfloor heating is used under the tiles
Ceramic, porcelain stoneware and stone cladding are universal coating types, they are compatible with any underfloor heating system. Let’s look at each in detail.
Cable system. the most affordable option under the tiles
The most popular solution. installation of heating cable. You can buy a separate cord and pull it through the selected area, or buy a heating mat. This is a grid on which the cable is already fixed, you just uncoil it and lay it. On how to install it and lay it over ceramic, we will tell you below.
Laying tiles on the infrared flooring
Infrared models, where heat is provided by fluctuating waves in the infrared range, compete with electrical cable systems today. There are 2 types of products on the market:
If you choose a film infrared floor, it is impossible to achieve a reliable bond between the film and the tiles. Sometimes masters recommend installing a layer of plasterboard between the film and the cladding. It will not take up heat, but it provides good adhesion.
The rod type of infrared flooring resembles a cable floor: the fabric consists of current-carrying busbars that are connected by flexible carbon fibre rods. Each rod acts independently of the rest of the system, so a break in one area will not disable the entire structure. The system is self-regulating, which prevents the product from overheating. However, the cost of such models is 1.5-2 times higher than the film one, and 3 times higher than the cable one.
From the point of view of energy savings, infrared floor heating is the optimal solution. But, as you can see, each of its subspecies has operational or price nuances.
Underfloor heating and ceramic tile
The third type of floor heating. water, in the form of pipes, located in the concrete screed. Facing is not placed on the system itself, but on the concrete. Water construction is economical and efficient, with its help, as a rule, not individual areas, but the whole room or even the whole house are heated. However, the system has a number of significant limitations:
Concrete screed with pipes embedded in it and laid tiles reduce the height of the room by about 10 cm.
Several times the load on the floor increases.
If you connect to the central heating system, it is necessary to inform the managing organization and get their permission. And also put additional equipment to regulate the temperature differences between the coolant in the radiators and pipes.
Can’t quickly locate a leak and fix it promptly.
Disadvantages of water underfloor heating make it less popular in apartments compared to electric counterparts. It is often installed in cottages and private houses with an autonomous heating system.
What is a rectified tile and whether it can be put on a warm floor
Some manufacturers, after firing, cut the products and make them uniform, for example, 30×30 cm. Undercut tiles are called rectified tiles: they have sharp edges and can be laid with minimal joints of 1-3 mm.
How to Tile Over a Heated Floor
Flooring looks solid, but it is not recommended to install it on a warm floor. Under the influence of temperature fluctuations, the density and volume of the tiles changes slightly, but not at all. The absence of seams and the natural shrinkage of the house leads to deformation of the coating. For a floor heating system, buy traditional ceramic tiles and porcelain tiles.
The initial stages of installing an electric floor are basically the same as the installation stages of a waterborne floor.
- Waterproofing with polyethylene film.
- Insulation with foam sheets of 50 mm in thickness. This is done to reflect heat and direct it upwards, not to heat the slabs. Due to this the efficiency of the floor significantly increases.
- Reinforcement over the thermal insulation with a special mesh or metal wire mesh with meshes of 100 x 100 mm. It prevents the screed from cracking.
- Screed Casting. At this stage it is necessary to provide a compensator for its expansion when heated. In this role is a damper tape, reinforced along the perimeter of the room near the walls. This prevents the coupler from cracking when heated.
- Before pouring the screed, beacons up to 50 mm high are installed.
Please note that the height of the room after such work will decrease by about 100 mm. Wires are laid on top of the screed after it has dried.
The following work is done in this sequence:
- Wiring. The place on the wall of the box for the thermostat is defined. In it there is also a switch and a socket. The cable (2.5 mm cross-section) leading to the floor must be earthed. From the box to the floor lay a grommet for wires to connect the heater. It also houses the conduit with the temperature sensor. These are mandatory conditions for installation of the entire system, since the sensor is its weakest link, and if necessary, this installation allows its painless replacement.
- Laying the heating elements. A simple variant. electric mats, which are glued to the screed with a special compound. Wires of connection are guided along the hole to the junction box.
- Mounting the temperature sensor, its outputs are also connected to the junction box. It is placed in the floor joint in the middle of the heating mats.
- Wiring. All wires are collected in a wall box, connecting to a thermoregulator with labeled terminals.
Combination of underfloor heating with ceramic tiles
The advent of water underfloor heating has radically solved the problem with heating in living areas. The efficiency of this method of heating internal spaces is much higher compared to the work of traditional heating radiators. The very idea of heating the floor in domestic premises, where there is high humidity and it is technologically necessary to have a clean floor surface, is not new. Underfloor heating of ceramic floors significantly increases the level of comfort in heated rooms and improves their performance.
For reference: In the usual version of the tiled floor has a temperature of 5-10 0 below the air mass in the subfloor. Hence the effect of “cold floors” that we have to put up with.
We remember well what we feel in the pool, where literally everything is embedded in tile. It is extremely uncomfortable in such an environment, where the walls and floor, despite the apparent cleanliness, are cold, wet and unpleasant to the touch. Tile underfloor heating was first installed in England in the mid-50s. When building the Olympic swimming pool, the organizers of the competition required the builders to make artificial tile floor heating inside the pool. Despite the fact that in those years, this technical improvement was fabulously expensive, the positive effect of this know-how was immediately appreciated.
These days, such a possibility is no longer something expensive and unattainable. Underfloor heating can be found everywhere today. Country houses, cottages and dachas, designed for a long and comfortable stay, are massively equipped with heating floors. Installing tile on a water heated floor is now practiced in the construction of saunas and baths. Many residents are trying to install a water heating loop under the ceramic tile flooring in the bathroom, bathroom or kitchen.
Installing a heating system warm floors in the house is associated with extensive work. In older buildings, the installation of water floors is associated with solving numerous problems. In new residential properties, installation of water underfloor heating, designed for tile, to make much easier and simpler.
Installing underfloor heating in inhabited buildings solves several problems at the same time. Even considering the principle of waterborne floor heating, it is already clear what is gained by underfloor heating combined with ceramic tile. The main thing that can be achieved in such cases is to significantly increase the level of comfort in the rooms. Frequent visitors of saunas and baths are well aware of what a warm tiled floor!
Tile, any other ceramic coating, combined with the work of water heating circuits, laid in the floor, have many advantages and advantages. Thanks to technological features, underfloor heating allows you to evenly distribute the right amount of heat over the entire surface of the supply. The principle of room heating not only creates an acceptable temperature balance, but also significantly improves the quality characteristics of the floor covering. When using a concrete screed, glazed tile is an ideal coating, especially when it comes to the arrangement of the kitchen or bathroom.
Ceramic flooring can be used in combination with a floor heating system. Especially this method of laying is relevant for country houses, baths and saunas, the construction of which is mainly made of wood. The presence of the water floor under the tiles in the bath or in the sauna, the problem is quite solvable. The main thing is to follow the technology of laying a set structure and provide in advance the option of floor covering.
In your case I can only advise an infrared film heated floor. In the kitchen, it is suitable unequivocally, as there is less moisture in contrast to the bathroom. Installing this floor is very simple. It is possible directly on the tiles, but it is better, of course, to lay it with foamed floor, and on top of a carpet or a palace. The film floor is very thin and doesn’t squeeze through, so it’s good. But I would recommend buying some regular heating mats for the toilet bowl or bathtub.
Underfloor heating pie consists of the following layers (pies can be slightly different from each other, but in general all is clear from the picture below):
The base, it can be, or screed, or concrete slab, in general, flat surface.
Next, waterproofing, foil insulation, reinforcing mesh, pipes (I’m writing about water underfloor heating) and screed.
Around the perimeter of course dampers tape, a very important point, do not forget about it, because the screed will crack.
As the basis can act and tile, of course this is a very expensive basis, but if there is no desire to knock down the tile, in principle, you can lay the cake and on it.
True, the height of the pie may be unacceptable, it is necessary to see your story to navigate the height of the ceiling, the gap between the doors and the floor, whether the pie height is possible in general.
If the doors open into the room, they must be dismantled, increase the height of the opening and re-install.
If from the room, the doors are not an obstacle, although of course the problem of a new screed must be beaten.
From all this we can conclude: If there is a need for underfloor heating, then the tiles will have to be knocked down.
As for blowing (you’re asking about it), you can blow, buy a fan (fan heater)
You can wear slippers, and in this case the tile is not dislodged.
For all other nuances, the tile must be knocked down, because it itself serves as the final coating, namely the finishing, but not intermediate.
Tile installation technology
There’s practically no difference between laying tiles and underfloor heating. But there is a step by step instruction, so as not to make a mistake in the actions carried out:
Heating elements and floor heating structure must be securely anchored to the foundation. This is checked before you start installing the tiles. To avoid air s, scotch tape is cut, with which it is fixed to the polymer mesh. If this is not done, then the quality of the work carried out is reduced to a minimum. Subsequently, the fixation of the entire structure is carried out with tile adhesive. It is simply smeared on top.
But when the laying of tiles on a warm floor is complete, you can not move around on the coating. This will only cause its deformation and re-installation. Usually the drying time of the tile adhesive is 3-4 days. During this time, you should give the surface to rest and harden for the necessary strength. And then the grouting process begins.
Water and electric, a variety of ways of action and energy consumption, the floor heating requires special treatment when installing, laying finishing materials such as tile or laminate on it, as well as its subsequent operation. Failure to comply with precautions and installation techniques will lead not only to the destruction of the surface, whether it is a loose tile or cracked poured coating, such as an expensive 3D, but also to the absolute inoperability of heating elements.
Nevertheless, having familiarized yourself with all the rules of installation of the equipment and its subsequent finishing, you can do without outside help and do everything with your own hands.
The most common areas for laying a warm floor are the bathroom and kitchen. For finishing here often used tile, it does not absorb moisture and easy to clean, in addition, less than laminate and parquet is subject to mechanical damage. Also popular areas for installation are swimming pools, garages and parking lots. The use of water flooring for the latter saves in the winter time from icing and snow drifts, and thus significantly saves time and effort of the owner of the premises.
Casting the subfloor: with what and how?
Before pouring the floor you need to do the following:
- Knock down the old flooring, getting to the bottom. Note that the thickness of the construction of the floor with water heating is 10. 12 cm.
- Level the surface of the base, knocking down the bumps. If the case is too complicated. lay a leveling screed with a prior laying of waterproofing.
- Lay the insulator. Of durable materials that can bear the load, the most effective thermal insulator is extruded polystyrene foam (EPPS). Granulated polystyrene foam (what we are used to calling Styrofoam) is not suitable, since it is too soft. You can also offer other options. expanded clay, cellular glass or screed of mortar with the addition of Styrofoam crumbs. But they are inferior to EPPS in thermal insulating qualities.
- To lay the IR-reflective layer. Alkaline screed environment metal foil, even aluminum foil, will not withstand. Only a metallized film of lavsan or polypropylene will be able to work in these conditions.
Now you can start pouring the actual TP:
- All walls at the level of the future screed must be covered with a dampener tape. It will allow the screed to expand freely when heated, which will eliminate the appearance of internal stresses, followed by deformation and destruction.
- On plastic bars with the height of 20-40 mm lay a wire mesh on top of the heat insulator, which will play the role of reinforcement.
- Lay the heating circuit pipes on top of the grid. They must be attached to the wire with plastic clips.
- Connect the circuit to the heating system and pressurize it: pump water or air into the system at a pressure 25% higher than working pressure. Keep the system in this state for several hours, watching the pressure gauge on the presser. If the arrow does not move, then there is no leakage and the pipes can be filled with screed.
- Lay the screed thickness of 5. 7 cm, so that the pipes were at a depth of 2. 3 cm.
- After waiting for the mixture to mature (25 days), we glue the tiles (to reduce the construction time, you can use a quick-drying mix, it will be ready in 7 days).
- After 24 hours we grout the seams.