Selecting the design of a wood-burning stove
Outdated and inefficient heating equipment is gradually becoming a thing of the past, which also affects homemade stoves. Nowadays, no one needs primitive iron boxes with a pipe and doors, devouring wood without a good heat output. Modern burzhuyka should be economical and well heat the room. That’s why advanced craftsmen are constantly working on improving the steel stoves.
To achieve the most efficient operation of a wood-burning heater, it is necessary to solve 2 issues: how to increase the efficiency of the stove-burner and the duration of burning from one load, without increasing the amount and price of the materials used. We present 3 variants of self-made stoves, where these problems were successfully solved and implemented:
- three-way stove made of two propane cylinders;
- pyrolysis fireburning stove with an air and flame tube heat exchanger and a secondary chamber;
- Very popular design. “Bubafonya” with the top burning of wood from a gas cylinder.
For your reference. The first 2 units were designed, made and tested by our expert Vitaliy Dashko, who kindly provided his photo and video materials.
If you are friendly with a welder and have the necessary tools, then there are no technical problems with the manufacture. Below we will present drawings and explain the technology, how to make a burzhuyka from a gas cylinder in all three variants. But first determine your choice by reading the review of these stoves.
For making the stove you will need a welder, an angle grinder, metalwork tools and measuring tools. You will need a few screws, at least 2 pieces
Three-way burzhuyka. principle of operation and pros and cons
The maker of this makeshift stove has assigned a humorous name “Collider” to it because of its unusual appearance and good heat emission. This wood-burning stove is made from two standard propane tanks of capacity of 50 liters, welded to each other at an angle of 90 °, as shown in the drawing. The principle of operation is such:
- The first tank, laid horizontally, plays the role of a firebox, respectively, equipped with doors and grates. An impressive batch of wood is placed in it and lit.
- The second vessel. is the air heat exchanger with internal partitions, slowing down the flow of flue gases and make them thrice change direction and give off more heat. At the end the combustion products leave the heater through the chimney.
- To increase the heating surface, both parts of the enclosure are equipped with additional fins.
- At the bottom of the firebox is welded ash drawer of sheet metal, whose door controls the supply of combustion air.
Note. Might as well use instead of cylinders a steel tube for burzhuyka with a diameter of 300 mm and thin walls (4-5 mm).
Approximate power “Collider” is 10 kW with an efficiency of about 55%, which allows you to heat an area up to 100 square meters. summer cottage, greenhouse or a large garage (box). Practical tests have shown that in the mode of maintaining heat in a heated room, 1 load of firewood is enough for 1.5-2 hours. If you use a heating unit in the house with a smaller area (25-50 square meters), the burning time will increase to 3-4 hours. Who understands the subject, he will understand that for a homemade burzhuyka this is not a bad economy.
Photo of the finished “Collider” stove with heat-exchange fins
The minus of this stove long combustion one. a strange appearance. But it is compensated by numerous advantages:
- ease of fabrication;
- fast heating up and decent duration of work from 1 charge of solid fuel;
- Cheap design, you will need to buy only convenient handles and more pipe for burzhuyka, if there are no propane tanks;
- Thanks to the size of the firebox in the stove fits long (80 cm) and massive logs, which contributes to the duration of combustion;
- The unit can be made with the hob, as shown in the photo.
Homemade Wood Gas Burning Stove Like Solo Stove for Camping. Secondary Combustion. Part-1
“Collider”, as well as any burzhuyka of a gas cylinder, welded his hands, can be supplemented by setting the water circuit, the controlling air damper in the ash door and outdoor blowing fan. The size of the stove can be changed in any direction by selecting smaller tanks or pipes of a different diameter.
About the work of the stove used to heat a cafe space of 100 m², told at
Overview of the pyrolysis furnace for 2 chambers
This small wood stove, made from a 24-liter gas cylinder, was named “Five” by the number of tubes of the air heat exchanger. It operates according to this principle:
- As in the previous case, the cylinder, laid on its side, serves as a combustion chamber, and at the bottom there is an ash-pan. The role of the grate is played by the slits cut into the wall of the vessel.
- On top of the tank is an opening, where the 5 vertical pipes of the heat exchanger adjoin. Along them the hot flue gases move and give part of the heat to the room.
- From the heat exchanger the products of combustion get into the secondary chamber, where the separately heated air flows through a tube. Thanks to this, the combustion gases generated in the furnace are afterburning and generate additional heat, and then sent to the chimney.
The results of practical tests of the heater are the following: A room of 30 sq. m. is heated up to 20°С during 1 hour, after that one deposit of wood is enough for one hour.5-2 hours depending on operation mode. Approximate power. 5 kilowatt. As you can see, in this design the burning time is reduced by reducing the size of the firebox, but the stove is very compact and can fit in any room. And it heats quite decently.
Advice. Do you want to increase the combustion time to an average of 4 hours?? Then study the drawing of another variant, showing the same pyrolysis pyrolysis stove, made by your own hands from a gas cylinder of 50 liters. The design of heating units is identical, the only difference is the volume of the tanks used as a firebox.
This is what a two-chamber makeshift oven looks like. On top there are 2 rods welded, you can put a pot or a kettle with water
Thanks to the efficient combustion of wood, the stove “Five” is more economical than “Collider”, although more difficult to assemble. For the cost of materials, the difference between them is small. the first one has 2 cylinders, the second one has 5 pipes with 57 mm diameter and 40 cm long. Another advantage of the stove is the ability to burn wet wood and all kinds of debris after heating without losing the intensity of heating. Other pluses are the same. cheapness, ease of operation and the possibility of modernization.
Another sound advice. It is quite natural, if after replacing the small cylinder on the standard (50 liters) you want to increase the capacity of the heater and add 2-3 more pipes in the heat exchanger. Remember that accordingly the passage section and draft chimney should increase. Otherwise you will waste your time and materials, because insufficient draft will leave the outermost sections cold and the heater output will not increase.
The enlarged version of the big cylinder 50 liters
Bubafonja top combustion stove
By and large, the “Bubafonja” can not be classified as a bourgeois, because it is fundamentally different by the principle of operation. But it is impossible to ignore this stove because of its wide popularity due to the burning time of 6 to 10 hours with 1 load of wood. But the heater is famous for many disadvantages, as we will tell below.
Algorithm of work of the stove of long combustion “Bubafonja”, shown in the drawing, is as follows:
- The fuel is a vertically standing propane tank of 50 liters. Through the hole in the upper lid, the air pipe goes inside, ending with a disk of thick metal. Steel strips are attached to the bottom, distributing the air in all directions.
- When the firebox is filled to the top with wood, the heavy disk presses it down and forces it to subside as it burns. Ignition is also performed from above, and only then the tube with the load is lowered.
- The combustion air supply is controlled by a damper mounted on the top end of the chimney. The flue pipe is cut into the side wall of the cylinder under the lid itself.
Great, the idea of making smoke free wood stoves from cement and plastic baskets
Note. The place where the pipe passes through the lid is not sealed and secondary air is sucked in, which helps to burn off the combustion gases over the disk, when the furnace is properly heated.
The strong points of “Bubafoni” are its decent duration of operation, simplicity and the possibility of alteration in the top combustion boiler (the furnace is made with a water jacket, what is described in a separate material). But the weaknesses have forced many garage owners to abandon such burzhuyki:
- the furnace cannot be refueled until all the fuel is burned;
- from closing the damper the furnace will not go out and will smolder for a long time, because secondary air enters it;
- without a good draft heater smokes into the room;
- In the slow burning mode the furnace heats weakly and the chimney gets clogged with soot;
- The unit must heat up sufficiently to reach normal operation, which requires ¼ of the fuel.
For reference. To burn off soot in the chimney, you need to run the “Boothouse” at maximum mode each time you fire it up.
Finally, sweeten the pill a little bit. Despite all the disadvantages, the stove long combustion from a gas cylinder is not losing popularity, in addition, it successfully operates on sawdust and various combustible garbage.
How to build a long-burning stove with their own hands
The problem of heating is particularly acute in private sectors and industrial parts of cities, filled with warehouses and garage cooperatives. There are many ways to heat, ranging from underfloor heating and ending with air guns and fireplaces. Most of these require a long installation or serious financial costs, but there are some that allow you to enjoy the warmth without much investment.
To create optimal temperature conditions in small and medium-sized rooms, you can make a long-burning stove with their own hands. From other devices, homemade design is distinguished by a high level of efficiency and indiscriminateness to the objects of combustion. It can operate on wood, sawdust, paper, waste and other fuels. Accordingly, the cost of maintaining heat is minimal, and the payoff exceeds all expectations.
How to increase the combustion duration of solid fuel
The dream of many homeowners. to put a boiler on solid fuel, which does not have to run with wood every 4-6 hours. Taking advantage of this, manufacturers and sellers of heating equipment apply the prefix “combustion duration” to all heat generators, including pellet, which operate independently for up to 7 days.
FRIENDS GAS AND GASOLINE ARE NO LONGER NECESSARY !!! REACTIVE FURNACE !!!
Varieties of classic boilers with enlarged fuel chamber
The duration of the combustion process is usually justified by the use of the smoldering mode with a limited air supply. But burning wood and coal in this way is inefficient, and here’s why:
- Wood and coal boilers reach their efficiency of 70-75% during maximum combustion. In smoldering mode, the unit efficiency is reduced to 40-50% (as in the conventional firewood stove).
- Smouldering wood releases little thermal energy. Who needs a “long-life” heat generator that does not heat the house fully?
- Freshly cut wood of certain species (e.g. poplar, willow) and low-calorie fuel cannot be normally combusted in the smouldering mode.
In fact, solid fuel boilers of long combustion are those that have a larger fuel chamber, only its size affects the duration of the process, all other things being equal. The principle is simple: the more wood in the firebox, the longer it burns and releases heat.
Household boilers, capable of working with a bookmark 8-12 hours on firewood and up to 24 hours on coal, are of this kind:
These designs of TT-boilers are quite realistic to make at home if you have the necessary tools and practice in welding. Even on the Internet you can find drawings of shaft boilers for solid fuel and sawdust, but such heaters are quite bulky and difficult to produce, and therefore deserve a separate topic.
How to make a wood-fired long-burning stove for the house
Our climate requires keeping homes comfortable during the cold season. The heating system must be of high quality, because in some regions the heat comes so rarely that there is almost no time to repair. The advantages of stove heating were appreciated even by our ancestors. Stoves for the home of the long burning wood burning today are common and popular.
Materials and tools
To determine how to make a long-burning stove yourself, you need to prepare in advance all the tools and stock up on materials:
- for the body of the stove will need a metal container of not less than 200 liters in volume (sometimes take for this purpose an empty, failed gas cylinder);
- Two sections of pipe with a diameter of 10 cm;
- metal channel; for the legs of the housing;
- About 60 pieces of refractory bricks (in case it is decided to cover the furnace with bricks);
- a sheet of metal with a thickness of 60 to 80 cm on the diagonal;
- masonry mix (ready-made is better, but you can make the mortar yourself);
- hinges for the doors;
- necessary tools for metal work (e.g. an angle grinder);
- electric welding equipment, electrodes;
- level and plumb,
- a tape measure and other measuring tools.
Once all materials and tools are prepared, you can begin the process of making the oven.
How to properly install the stove and chimney
when placing wood heaters, it is important to follow the fire safety rules. Especially in the case of our expert stoves, the upper part of which can be heated to a red glow at maximum operation
- In a garage or cottage built of brick or other non-combustible materials, the minimum distance to the walls of the room is not regulated. But any flammable objects or structures must be placed no closer than 50 cm from the body of the stove.
- In the greenhouse, the fireplace should not be placed close to plants and outer walls of glass.
- In a wooden house, the floor under the stove is covered with a sheet of metal, protruding from the firebox at 700 mm. The surrounding walls are also covered with metal to prevent fires.
A separate question. what to make a chimney for the fireplace. Definitely not suitable aluminum chimney, as the temperature of the gases at the outlet reaches 200-400 ° C, depending on the mode of operation. What options are acceptable:
It is better to lay the chimney duct at an angle (left) than just vertically (right)
To create a good draft at the top of the pipe is placed at a height of 4 m or more, measured from the grate. Especially demanding to the draught Bubafonoya burner, for it is necessary to make the gas exhaust higher, so then there were no questions about why the furnace smokes into the room. Ideally, the vertical section of the chimney should end with a collector for condensate, although many home masters do not adhere to this rule.
By the way, the right chimney can increase the efficiency of the stove-burner. This is achieved in two ways:
- In the garage or greenhouse, the chimney pipe is extended and laid at an angle, and at the other end of the room goes on the roof, as shown above in the photo. In this way, the glowing combustion products will give more heat to the internal air.
- On the vertical part of the chimney is placed a heat exchanger, connected to the water heating system at home or cottage. Minus: from the chimney duct of the long-burning stove will have to remove soot more often.
Wiring diagram of the water heat exchanger standing on the chimney
Heat exchanger samovarnogo type, placed on the chimney burzhuyka, should not be directly connected to the water heating network. There is a danger that the coolant can boil and tear the pipes. It is better to use the connection scheme through a container of water. a heat accumulator, which can also be made by hand from a gas cylinder. For a description and drawings of its construction you can go here.
The oven with their own hands
For making the furnace will need a welder Any steel vessel with the required thickness of the walls are used. Metal is used most often, sometimes craftsmen build stoves out of bricks. Iron constructions have the advantage that they can be rearranged if necessary.
Furnace “bubafonya” from a gas cylinder
The top of the container is cut with an angle grinder at the point of rounding the walls of the cylinder, the part is used as a cover. A strip of iron is welded to the cut for stability.
For the presser piston steel cut a circle so it can pass inside the cylinder, in the middle form a hole 5 cm. Attach the air supply pipe to the hole by welding. A channel is welded crosswise to the underside. Install the top and side of the chimney, grind the cut seams with an angle grinder. The furnace of the long combustion with their own hands from a gas cylinder is ready.
Long-burning stove made of bricks
Long-burning brick oven This is the most advantageous looking stove, but it is more labor-intensive and time-consuming.
Sturdy foundation is built independently from the foundation of the house, its dimensions exceed the size of the furnace by 20 cm on each side. Under the underside make a sand and gravel backing, lay a layer of roofing felt.
After the concreting, the furnace can be laid on the 28th day. The top of the foundation is insulated from the masonry with roofing felt in 3 layers, put a heat-resistant coating of asbestos, glass ceramic materials.
The scheme of location of bricks in each row is necessary to ensure the effective work of the construction. You can find the drawings of the masonry layout on the Internet, where the way of masonry of each tier is indicated.
The gases inside move not only vertically, but also pass horizontally. Correct masonry rows increase the contact plane of smoke with bricks, increase the heat output.
Long-burning stoves without grates: a burzhuyka with their own hands
We have repeatedly mentioned the low efficiency and high fuel consumption of conventional direct-burning bubbler. The reason for this is the direct access of oxygen and the free emission of exhaust gases. The initial stage of solving this problem was given in the last design. with the chimney heat exchanger. In addition, there are the following problems with fuel combustion:
The main idea that we will develop in this article will be to regulate the supply of oxygen for combustion. This will require more accurate design of the shutters (doors, flaps) and adjustments (dampers, movable and rotary dampers).
The internal structure of the furnace of the long combustion “bubafoniya
The schematic diagram of the homemade pyrolysis furnace “bubafonja