Preparatory and accumulation ties
It is very important that the insulation is tightly sandwiched between the two screeds and that any movement or vibrations are avoided. Concrete floor preparation is leveled by the preparatory screed, then plates of insulation are glued to it with the help of tile adhesive under the comb. All joints are sealed with glue. If mineral wool is used, the concrete preparation must first be covered with a layer of penetrating waterproofing.
The screed layer over the insulation must have such a thickness that its total thermal conductivity was at least 3-4 times lower than that of the heat shield. In general, the thickness of the screed is about 1.5-2 cm of the final height of the ceilings, but to correct the inertia of the floor heating with this value can freely “play”. The main thing is to change the thickness of the insulation accordingly.
The top layer of the screed, exposed to heat, is poured after enclosing the walls with a damper tape. Pouring an accumulation screed can, for convenience, be carried out in two stages. On the first pour about 15-20 mm with the reinforcement of a sparse mesh. On the resulting plane is convenient to move and mount the pipe installation system, the remainder is poured to ground level minus the thickness of the floor covering.
compacted soil; 2. sand-gravel backfill; 3. preparatory reinforced screed; 4. water vapor barrier; 5. insulation; 6. wire mesh; 7. floor heating pipes; 8. the cement-sand screed; 9. floor covering; 10. damper tape
Underfloor heating: with your own hands. Part two
In the first part of this article we told, why the user of FORUMHOUSE with a nickname Rebbytw decided to make the water underfloor heating on the ground with his hands during the reconstruction of an old house. In the article we described the entire preparatory stage, as well as the nuances of preparing the base for a concrete screed. Continuing the theme we started. We tell you how to lay a warm water floor from scratch on the ground, and proceed to the following technological processes. laying sewer pipes, laying the hydro and steam insulating layer, installation of insulation, the process of reinforcement and pouring screed.
Water floor on the ground: laying sewer pipes
According to the user of our portal, he decided to lay sewer pipes after tamping the sand, for two reasons:
The very laying of sewer pipes was performed as follows. with the help of a laser level, marks were put on the wall, from which the depth of laying pipes was marked. The marks were placed every 1 meter, taking into account the angle of inclination of the pipes. The slope was 3 cm per 1 m. After digging a trench, before laying pipes, the sand was additionally poured with water and tamped.
Pipes for installing the sewer were regular. gray.
The diameter of the pipes is 110 mm. I took the gray pipes, t.к. The brown ones stand in 1.5 times more expensive. The gray pipe has a thinner wall. 2.7 mm, and the brown 3.5 mm, but the stress on the pipes will be minimal. And judging by the feedback of local builders, the gray pipes laid in the ground, stand, and nothing happens to them.
Interested in the nuances of pipe installation. First, the entire sewer circuit is collected without sealing rubbers. roughly, to check that everything is calculated correctly. Then the pipes were assembled with the inserted rubber rings. For ease of installation, we used liquid soap, so it is easier to insert the pipes into each other.
After the tubes are inserted, mark the joint with a marker (we put a mark on the circle) and slightly pull the tube to 0.5-1 cm. This gap is necessary to compensate for the linear expansion of pipes. Also after installation, the pipes are screwed a little. If the O-ring is jammed during installation, it is very difficult to turn the pipes. So, we have to disassemble the connection and remove the skewness of the rubber band.
If you leave the twisted sealing ring, the effluent will begin to seep into the sand and erode it.
SlimFix low profile underfloor heating installation by Continal Underfloor
Also, all pipe joints are wrapped with mounting tape.
On the finish, a plastic pipe was inserted into the asbestos pipe, which had already been laid earlier and goes from the house to the septic tank. Т.к. Asbestos pipe diameter of 20 cm, the user went for this trick. Took a transition brown pipe from a diameter of 11 cm to 16 cm, put it on the last tee and shoved it into the asbestos. We’ve filled the gap between two pipes with (about) 20 mm of kabolka. linen braided rope soaked in tar and bitumen mastic.
After laying the sewer pipes, they were filled with sand, poured with water, tamped and brought everything into one plane with the prepared base.
Also, the user advises, before finally pouring the pipe, take a photo of it, attaching a tape measure to know the exact distance from the wall to the sewer, in case you need to drill the floor in the room in the future.
Installation of vapor barrier, thermal insulation and waterproofing
The foundation is ready, we continue the device of the floor heating on the ground, and we have the next question. what to do next, t.к. There are several “pies” of such a floor. Rebbytw’s train of thought is interesting in this regard.
I wondered what to do: to fill in the gravel, do screed (rough) or immediately put insulation, and decided to consult with those who have already done the floor on the ground.
Local builders advised the user to make such a pie: roll out on a layer of compacted sand polyethylene film, then on this flooring pour reinforced concrete screed thickness of about 50 mm. Next, lay extruded polystyrene foam on this base, which is then fixed to the screed with self-tapping screws. Then pour the final screed floor heating.
The user thought about it and rejected this solution as wrong and not a budget method. After all, in fact, the rough screed proposed by “locals” should be made only for the convenience of fixing the EPPB. Rebbytw has decided that since.к. The floor is not expected to be heavily loaded, it is right to put insulation (2 layers of 5 cm each) on the base of compacted sand, with a polyethylene film under the insulation.
Construction of a light decking system
The key element of underfloor heating in wooden houses by the “dry” method is a metal plate with a groove in the form of the inverted Greek letter Ω (when viewed from the front). The walls of the cavity tightly cover the body of the pipe with the coolant, and the side “wings” of the plate increase the heat dissipation area instead of the screed.
Reference. Plates for even heat flow distribution are made of galvanized steel and aluminum. Their width comes in different sizes and varies depending on the pitch of the pipes (standard is at a distance of 150 and 200 mm). The product can break its own hands into equal parts thanks to the transverse notches (peoria).
Galvanized plate on the left and aluminum plate on the right
There are several ways of laying a water-heating floor using metal diffusers:
- using the technology of the famous Uponor brand, laying the pipes of heating circuits in the gaps between the floorboards;
- Using special polystyrene boards for underfloor heating, with projecting bosses or prefabricated grooves;
- With the burning of hollows in the usual foam with a special apparatus;
- with the use of wood kits, where grooves are made for heating water circuits.
Each method has its pros and cons, but they are united by 3 important properties: low weight, efficiency and the absence of “wet” processes, which greatly speeds up installation. Whichever method you choose, the floor “pie” remains the same and consists of the following layers (from bottom to top)
- The base for laying insulation.
- Insulation material.
- Heat spreading plates.
- Pipelines with circulating heated water;
- Finish flooring.
Note. When installing water heated floors on a wooden base in the heating “pie” can be used vapor barrier film and diffusion membrane (waterproofing).
Now let’s understand in detail what is the best way to insulate the ceiling and how to properly make a warm floor in a wooden house, using any of the above methods. But first. a few words about the selection of components.
Installation of heating circuits. step by step instructions
First of all the base is covered with waterproofing film with an overlap of 15 25 cm on the walls (the thickness of the thermal insulation screed). Overlap of the neighboring panels. at least 10 cm, the joints are sealed with scotch tape. Then the insulation is tightly laid, the seams are filled with polyurethane foam.
Next, let’s consider point by point how to make the warm floor itself:
- Cover the walls with the damping strip to the height of the monolith. Hang the top of the waterproofing tape over the expansion joint.
- Install distribution box with pump and manifold inside.
- Lay the pipes of the circuits as shown in the diagram, using a measuring tool and observing the laying interval. Hinge ends immediately under and over the heating tape.
- Attach the pipe to the thermal insulation by inserting the plastic “harpoons” at intervals of 50 cm. If the structure of the insulation does not hold the clips well, before unrolling the pipes, put a metal mesh and tie them with clamps.
- Install the expansion joint tape at the expansion joints as shown in the picture. Install the latter around the edges of the concrete monoliths, between individual heating circuits and in doorways.
- Lay the pipes to the radiators by fitting the pipes with insulation sleeves. The pipes to the comb should also be insulated. in this place the hinges are too close, warming the floors in the corridor is absolutely unnecessary.
Tip. In the process of heating the monoliths will expand and move relative to each other. Therefore, it is better to pack the pipes crossing the boundaries of the boards in special protective covers or put sleeves of thermal insulation.
The node of the passage through the expansion joint. it is better to cover the pipes with covers or wrap the insulation
After assembling the system you need to fill the underfloor heating circuits with water and check the tightness of joints by pumping pressure of 2-4 bars (take as a guide the threshold of the boiler’s safety valve). The technology of filling and bleeding air from each TP loop is described in detail in.
It also does not hurt to run the boiler, warm up the warm floors without screed and visually make sure the system is working properly. How the installation of underfloor water heating is done, shown in the video:
How to make a floor heating in the house on the ground
Planning to make a warm floor in the house on the ground, it is advisable to do the construction in two stages: first pour the rough screed on the lower layers, and only after it has matured, lay all the other layers on it.
The fact that the ground and, accordingly, all the layers above it can sag. Even if the ground is caked, even if it’s tamped, it will move. It was just lying there without any load. If you lay the floor heating pie on top, and it weighs a lot, it will begin to sag, cracks will appear. It can even tear the elements of the underfloor heating. Then all the money will be thrown out the window. For this reason, and advised to first do the roughing floor according to all the rules, and then top is already laying a water floor. It’s much safer.
Yes, many people have underfloor heating on the ground without a screed, and nothing sags. But not everyone and not always. So think carefully. Warm concrete floor on the ground will be more reliable with a rough screed. If you do decide to do without this layer, set up at least two reinforcing frame: the first under the thermal insulator, and the second in the screed. Then, with careful ramming, everything can stand quite well.
An example of a ground heating pie
Installation of a water heat floor on the ground
Many people when building private homes from scratch, seek to achieve the desired microclimate in the living space. Nowadays, there are several ways to achieve these goals. But still, according to consumer reviews, the best option is considered a water underfloor heating. Having at hand, the necessary materials, tools and guidelines SNIP, these works can be done independently, without the services of a specialist.
General principles of arrangement of floors made of wood
If you are going to lay a floor of natural material in a country house, plan the work for the late spring
This is important because during this period, the wood will absorb less moisture. If the assembly of the floors in the cottage or house does not manage to reschedule the recommended time, and to perform the work necessary in the summer. select a dry, hot, without heavy rains and dew
Whichever way the floor is arranged, it is extremely important to pay maximum attention to the quality of the lumber. The wood must necessarily be treated with special means against rotting, moisture, insects, as well as flame retardant composition
The pie of a warm floor on the ground features of laying
The ground on which the heating will be installed, must be prepared. This is done by leveling the soil, compacting the top layer. If necessary, a layer of backfill is placed on the ground. It consists of crushed stone or gravel. Most often a material of medium fraction is used. This prevents capillary penetration of groundwater into the room. The need to lay such a “pillow” occurs only in the case of a high level of groundwater.
The layer of screed, which was mentioned above, also has certain nuances. The thickness should be 50 to 100 mm. Concrete grade used. M100 or M200. It is advisable to conduct reinforcement of the substrate in cases where the soil has been poorly compacted. Also its use is justified in the case where there are differences in the density of the base.
Screed for underfloor heating on the ground in a private home can be laid on the floor of the basement. This is done for the purpose of leveling the plane. The thickness of such a layer should not be less than 3 cm.
There is also such a phenomenon as dry screed. Its use has gained popularity due to the fact that there is no wet concrete work. It is reasonable to use the technology only for the arrangement of the rough screed.
When laying underfloor heating on the ground, you should also take care of the deformation layer. Damper tape will help here. The material will eliminate the possibility of thermal bridges. It also compensates for the load arising from the heating of the concrete flooring. It does not allow the screed to expand and crack. Damper tape is laid on all sides of the outer building envelope. But this is done only after plastering and preparatory work for finishing work on the building.
Floors on the ground. a universal way to arrange a warm and secure basement in the house. And they can be done at any level of groundwater and type of foundation. The only limitation. the house on piles. In this article we will describe in detail all the layers of the “floor pie” and show how to organize it with your own hands.
Concrete floors on the ground, mean no basements or gaps for ventilation in the basement.
In essence, it is a multi-layered pie. Where the lowest layer is the ground and the uppermost is the floor covering. In this case the layers have their purpose and a strict sequence.
There are no objective limitations to the organization of the floor on the ground. High groundwater is not a problem. Their only weakness. the timing and financial costs. But on such floors you can put brick or block walls, and even heavy equipment.
Preparatory works before laying
Before installing and choosing the installation method, it is recommended to evaluate the condition of the ground. For example, in some places you can lay the beams directly on the ground, but first lay a waterproofing under them. It is this arrangement allows the wooden floor to last for decades. In some cases it is better to use additional crushed stone and sand, but sometimes even that is not enough. So, video :
Since there are no specific instructions for matching room features and laying methods, it is best to use the best option, which is suitable for all conditions, even for places with high humidity.
And to this day, the most win-win option is a wooden floor in a private home on a cement-sand or concrete screed. Such a floor can act as a rigid base or waterproofing. But the main point will still be the planning of the ground. To be able to regulate the consumption of building materials, the ground should be well tamped. And on top of the tamped-down soil you can fill in the sand to a thickness of 20 mm or more. On top of the sand is laid a waterproofing, which can be cellophane or Ruberoid.
Scheme of the device on the wooden floor on the ground joists (with heaving soil)