Responsible step: calculating the capacity of the expansion tank
In order to have a clear idea of the water capacity of the whole heating system, you need to know how much water is placed in the heat exchanger of the boiler.
We can take the average values. So, a wall-mounted heating boiler on average contains 3-6 liters of water, in a floor or parapet. 10-30 liters.
Now you can calculate the capacity of the expansion tank, which performs an important function. It compensates for the excess pressure that occurs when the coolant expands when heated.
Depending on the type of heating system, there are cisterns:
For small rooms is suitable open type, but in the large two-storey houses more often put closed compensators (membrane).
If the tank capacity is less than required, then the valve will relieve the pressure too often. In this case you have to change it or install a parallel tank.
For the formula to calculate the capacity of the expansion tank the following values are needed:
- V(c). volume of coolant in the system;
- K. expansion coefficient of water (takes the value 1.04, according to the expansion coefficient of water at 4%);
- D. the expansion efficiency of the cistern, which is calculated by the formula: (Pmax. Pb)/(Pmax1)=D, where Pmax. the maximum allowable pressure in the system, and Pb. the pressure of pre-pumping of the air compensator chamber (the parameters are specified in the documentation to the tank);
- V(b). capacity of the expansion tank.
Radiators with the smallest amount of circulating water inside are vacuum. They contain just under 2 cups. But why is it that such are not widespread, probably because in the event of an accident they can not long continue to heat the room, and while the accident will eliminate more than one hour, while in winter it may be and.35С.
Suitable for our systems. Logically. Cast iron fits cast iron. Low-capacity radiators such as steel panel radiators, aluminum and bimetallic radiators are suitable for use with single- and double-circuit wall mounted boilers, especially when paired with a remote temperature sensor. And cast iron batteries with their high inertia, fit under floor boilers, especially when working on the natural circulation. The capacity of cast iron batteries from 1.3 to 1.8 liters, depending on the model.
The volume of the section and the flow rate of the coolant
Today not all self-contained heating systems are filled with water. This is due to two factors.
- The occurrence of a situation where the owners need to leave the house without heating for a long time, because the prolonged absence of the need to heat rooms.
- Water tends to freeze even at zero temperature. When water freezes, it expands and turns into ice, i.e. it changes from one physical state to another. During this process, the intermolecular bonds of water are released and changed, resulting in the development of a huge force that breaks radiators and pipes made of any metal.
To avoid situations like this from happening, another coolant is used to fill the heating system instead of water, which is devoid of the problem of freezing. These can be such household antifreezes as:
Thanks to special additives that are added to these components, coolant compositions retain their aggregate state in liquid form even at subzero temperatures.
The volume of the cast iron radiator 1 section in liters
Despite the fact that the development of the production of heating devices does not stand still, people still continue to use cast-iron models, despite their some shortcomings. And all thanks to the fact that products made of cast iron have a number of positive qualities.
Characteristics of cast iron heating radiators
Before buying a cast iron radiator you need to consider its specifications, which will suit the features of your heating system.
Weight of the cast iron radiator section
Weight of 1 section of a standard cast iron radiator 7.5 kg.
Section size of cast iron radiator
The height of each section of the cast-iron radiator is 59 centimeters (590 mm)
Size of 1 section of a standard cast iron radiator: 59 cm high and 10.8 cm width
Thus, the length of the cast iron radiator of:
Cast iron radiator section volume
Volume of 1 section of a standard cast iron radiator 1.5 liters.
Thus the volume of the cast-iron radiator of:
Heat output of a cast iron radiator
The power of the cast-iron radiator depends on the area of its outer surface and consists in the ability to give the heat energy at the highest temperature of the coolant. Basically this value ranges from 80 to 200 watts per section. For calculation of necessary power the following formula is used: for 25-30 cubic. м. Power of the radiator must be 1 kW. In case there are several external walls, the capacity figure increases.
Cast iron radiator dimensions
In the Soviet Union the dimensions of cast iron radiators had a certain standard. In one section between the centers of pipes of supply and drainage of the coolant ranged from 30 to 50 cm. Section width has not been standardized and varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. Almost all modern radiators also have these standards.The most popular model among cast iron products. MS-140. (installed in many “Khrushchev” and 9 floors of 60-80s years). Distance between the centers of the tubes is 50 cm; height of the battery is 58.8 cm; width 9.3 cm; depth. 14 cm. The variety of dimensions of the batteries is due to the needs of customers.
Cast iron radiators manufacturers
Most of the Russian market is represented by domestic models. This is due to the fact that the costs of transporting cast iron batteries make up a large part of its final cost. Of the major manufacturers we can distinguish:
- ChAZ. Cheboksary Aggregate Plant (Russia)
- Minsk Heating Equipment Factory (Belarus)
- Kiran (Ukraine)
- Viadrus (Czech Republic)
Design of cast iron radiators
Almost all cast iron products. complete, consisting of individual sections connected by nipple sleeves. At their manufacture gray cast iron is used. Between the individual sections are installed gaskets of paronite. Horizontally, the flow of water always goes in one direction. Vertically, the current flows through the channels, of which there are one or more. Depending on the number of vertical channels the battery area and power increases.
Because of the need to maintain the strength and surface area, manufacturers cannot greatly change the mass-to-power ratio. Great weight of the battery requires reinforced mounts.
But most radiators do not have special design elements. Therefore they are simply hung on special brackets mounted in the wall. It is also possible to install radiators on the floor on special feet.Other characteristics of cast iron radiators
Before buying a cast iron battery, it is worth paying attention to some other parameters:
These maximum parameters in cast iron radiators have a higher value than their counterparts made of other materials. But at the same time differ in different types of products. This should be taken into account to avoid ruptures in the heating system.
Advantages of cast iron radiators
Cast iron radiators are very resistant to the aggressive environment of the coolant. This is due to the physical parameters of this metal. Cast iron radiators can for a very long time not be affected by corrosion, even at elevated temperatures. In addition, almost no damage to the cast iron and various chemicals added to the coolant.
In the case of a clogged or leaking device, they are easy enough to repair. Clogs that occur in the radiator, can be caused by the properties of the coolant with a large amount of salts Ca and Mg. As a result of deposits on the inner wall of the device, it is narrowed, which leads to a deterioration in the heating rate and the normal heat transfer. Leaks in the cast-iron battery may occur as a result of wear and tear of the gaskets between the sections. All of the above problems are better to eliminate during the summer preventive disconnection of the water supply.
Products made of cast iron can be used at high temperature and pressure ratings, due to their low thermal expansion coefficient.
Heat output of the heater is high enough. To achieve the greatest effect of this property should be placed behind a cast-iron radiator special reflectors.
Installation of a cast-iron radiator is easy due to the fact that the radiator sections are connected by threaded joints and gaskets made of paronite. The battery is connected to the pipe ends in the same way. A special wrench is used for the threads, with which it is possible to disconnect any section without removing the side.
Very long product life, which is more than 50 years. The only thing is that during this time it is necessary to regularly remove deposits and replace the gaskets.
Disadvantages of cast iron radiators
Cast iron products have many positive aspects, but as everywhere else they have their disadvantages:
In cast iron models it is difficult to install auto. Control the temperature of the room. This is due to the fact that even after the radiator is turned off completely, it will continue to heat the air, thanks to its inert heat transfer.
Due to the large volume of coolant, after turning on the battery, it takes more than 30 minutes to heat up. And the room itself during this period of time will not warm up almost.
Very high weight in comparison with counterparts from other materials. The weight of one section is 7.5 kg. And such sections come in 6 or more pieces. Therefore, when carrying and installing a cast-iron radiator you will need help
All cast iron batteries are represented by products of the same appearance. This is due to the peculiarities of casting cast iron parts. To vary the models in some way, some manufacturers put a picture on the outer surface of the radiator. In this case, the cost of the product increases by more than 10 times.
Cast iron is poorly resistant to water hammer. According to the requirements of GOST 8690-94 cast-iron radiator must withstand a short-term pressure of 1.5 MPa.
The volume of water in the heating radiator: documentation and average data
Quantity of coolant in the depths of radiators for many people is an abstract value. The volume of this fluid affects the inertia of the heating system, heating time and mode of operation of the boiler. The ability to calculate the volume of water in any part of the heating system will allow more accurate selection of other equipment for it (boiler, circulating pump, etc.). д.).
Why do you need to know the amount of water in the radiator
Typically, the radiators are paid attention to at the beginning or end of the heating season or during general cleaning. Meanwhile, inside it there are vital processes for humans, for which the coolant is responsible. most often water. Is it valuable to know how much of this fluid is contained in one radiator, section?
The volume of water inside this “web” can be easily recognized
It turns out that it does, and there are more than one reason for this:
- Do not “weight” the heater, because the volume of water in the cast-iron radiator heating increases its already considerable weight;
- installation of a heating system with a certain boiler capacity requires the calculation of the total amount of coolant, including in the radiators;
- Knowing that the amount of coolant in the battery is 10-12% of the heating system. all batteries, pipes and boiler, you can “dry” drain the water;
- when selecting the expansion tank;
The volume of the expansion tank should correspond to the amount of coolant in the system
- Not to go overboard with concentrated antifreeze, which is poured in a certain proportion with water;
- for the natural/forced type of circulation choose the optimal size of the battery. large in the first case and no difference in the second.
In a panel house with central heating one does not have to worry about such issues as filling the system with coolant, this is the diocese of the housing and communal services. But taking care of your homestead or dacha is a huge responsibility that rests entirely on your shoulders. The opportunity to save time and money forces the owners with their own hands to service the heat communications, using sometimes non-standard methods.
For example, the lack of centralized water supply forces the use of natural sources. wells, ponds.
In order to know the exact amount of liquid required, it is necessary to calculate in advance how much of it will go into all the components of the heating system:
Working with documentation
The answer to the question, how much water flows out of the pipe “A”, or rather, should go there, is usually found in the technical passport of the radiator and boiler. With the pipes a little harder, but not fatal. knowing their inner diameter, on our website you can find a detailed table on the amount of water in liters / cubic meters per meter. The same can be said about the data on the volume of the fuel boiler or batteries.
Why the volume of the radiator is important
Calculation of how many liters per section of the aluminum radiator is important for several reasons:
- When the device is mounted on wall brackets, you should consider not only its weight, but also the coolant inside. It is easy to calculate how much water weighs by checking the data sheet. If it is stated that the volume, for example, a section of aluminum radiator with a center distance of 500 is 0.27 liters, the water in it fits 270 ml.
- Knowing the volume of the battery will allow you to pick up a boiler of the right capacity. This is especially important when the coolant is antifreeze. Having a sufficiently high viscosity, it requires a good “pusher”, otherwise the slow movement of the carrier through the system will not work efficiently.
- The choice of expansion tank, on which many consumers save when installing aluminum batteries, also depends on the amount of coolant in the heating system. It takes on any pressure fluctuations, than “saves the life” of both heaters and pipes. Water, when heated, increases in volume by 4%, and if you do not give it additional space for this, the rupture of the integrity of the system, it is only a matter of time.
- On the volume of the radiator sometimes depends on how the coolant moves through the network. For example, radiators with a large capacity will work well for the natural type of circulation.
Given how many factors affect the volume of heating batteries, this parameter should be taken into account when choosing products from aluminum.
How much water is in the cast iron section of the heating radiator?
Different types of radiators are used in the construction of any heating system. Any heating system must be designed with the number of radiators and their internal volume. Each radiator section has a certain volume, and when installing the heating system it is necessary to know the number of sections in the battery. The efficiency and proper operation of the heating system depends on the correct calculation of the number of sections.
What types of heating radiators are available?
These types of radiators are most commonly used today:
These units are available in a range of heights, usually from 300 to 750 mm, with the largest range of lengths and configurations in heights from 450 to 600 mm in height. They range in length from 200 mm to 3 m or more, with the largest range from 450 mm to 2 m in length.
Panels and convectors
Such radiators usually consist of one or two panels, but sometimes there are 3-panel. Modern single-panel radiators have a corrugated panel that forms a series of fins (called “convectors”) attached to the back (facing the wall) side of the panel, which increases the convection power of the battery.
They are commonly known as “single convector” (SC). Radiators consisting of two panels with the ribs on top of each other (with ribs in the middle) are known as “double convector” (DC). There are also double radiators consisting of one finned panel and one finless panel.
Radiators of the old design consisted of one or two panels without any convection fins.
The traditional standard radiator has seams at the top, sides and bottom of each panel (where pressed sheets of steel are joined together). Nowadays, most seam radiators are sold with decorative panels mounted on the top and sides (the upper ones have vents for air circulation), and they are known as “compact” radiators. The alternative top seam radiator design uses a single sheet of pressed steel, and this sheet is joined in a “roll” fashion at the top of the radiator.
Low surface temperature radiators
Most of these radiators are designed so that their radiating surfaces have relatively low temperatures at normal heating system temperatures. Used where there may be a risk of burns. most often in children’s institutions, nursing homes, hospitals and hospitals.
There is a huge selection of available heating radiator designs that may be more pleasing to the eye than their conventional counterparts. Some designer radiators are available in tall, narrow configurations that may be suitable for rooms with, for example, narrow walls next to doors, where conventional radiators cannot provide sufficient output with limited available wall space.
These devices, as a rule, are camouflaged under the baseboard. The operation of these radiators is similar to a “warm floor” effect, as the user’s eye does not notice any radiator sections on the walls. The installation of baseboards saves interior space in the room.
Such radiators are specially designed for drying towels, as well as for dehumidification of baths and showers.
However, the heat output of towel rails when covered with towels is significantly reduced, and even if they are not covered with towels, towel rails can dissipate much less heat than conventional radiators of similar size. Towel rails are usually not enough to heat rooms.
They are used only in relatively small and well-insulated bathrooms. Some towel rail designs contain a regular radiator with towel racks. above, and sometimes on the sides of the radiator. Such devices have a better thermal capacity.
The amount of coolant in the heating battery
Properly chosen volume of coolant in the section allows the radiator to work optimally. The amount of water in the radiator affects not only the operation of the boiler, but also the efficiency of all elements of the heating system. On the correct calculation of the volume of water or antifreeze also depends on the most rational choice of other equipment that is part of the heating system.
The volume of the coolant in the system must also be known in order to select the correct expansion tank. For homes with a central heating system, the volume of radiators is not so important, but for autonomous heating systems, the volume of radiator sections must be known precisely. It is also necessary to take into account the volume of pipelines of the heating system, so that the heating boiler works in the right mode. To calculate the internal volume of pipes in the heating system there are special tables. It is only necessary to properly measure the length of the heating circuit pipes.
Today the most popular are radiators of bimetal and aluminum alloy. A 300 mm high bimetallic radiator section has an inner volume of 0.3 l/m, and a 500 mm high section has an inner volume of 0.39 l/m. The same values are given for the aluminum alloy radiator sections.
Also cast iron radiators are still in use. The imported cast-iron section, a height of 300 millimeters has an internal volume of 0.5 l/m, and the same section with a height of 500 mm already has an internal volume of 0.6 l/m. Cast-iron radiators of domestic production with a height of 300 mm have an internal volume of 3 l/m, and the section with a height of 500 mm has a volume of 4 l/m.
As the heat-transfer agent the usual water is used most often, but antifreeze and distillate are also used. The antifreeze is used only if the living in the house is not permanent. The antifreeze is needed when the heating system is not working in the winter. Using antifreeze as a heat transfer agent is much more expensive than using plain water.
In order not to spend extra money when using the antifreeze as a coolant, you need to know exactly the volume of the heating system. You need to calculate the number of radiator sections, and calculate the volume of heating batteries. using the above-mentioned parameters. The volume of the piping is determined using a special table. But to do this, you first need to measure the length of the pipes with a tape measure.
After the calculations the volume of pipes and volume of radiators are added together, and on the basis of these data the necessary amount of antifreeze is bought. Also this data will be useful to determine the amount of water to be used in the heating system. This information will allow the most flexible setting of the heating boiler, as well as other elements of the heating circuit.
If for some reason the user can not determine the exact volume of water or antifreeze in the radiators of heating, you can use the average data that are applicable to the heating radiators of those or other types. If we take, say, a 22 or 11 type panel radiator, for every 10 cm of this heating device there will be 0,5-0,25 liters of coolant.
If you need to determine “by eye” the volume of a cast iron radiator section, for Soviet models the volume will range from 1.11 to 1.45 liters of water or antifreeze. If imported cast iron sections are used in the heating system, then such a section has a capacity of 0.12, to 0.15 liters of water or antifreeze.
There is another way to determine the internal volume of the radiator section. You should close the lower holes, and through the top holes pour water or antifreeze into the section up to the top. But it does not always work, because radiators made of aluminum alloy have a rather complicated internal construction. In such a design, it is not easy to remove air from all internal cavities, so this method of measuring the internal volume for aluminum radiators cannot be considered accurate.
You should also take into account the fact that the heat exchanger of the boiler also holds a certain amount of coolant. The heat exchanger of a wall-mounted heating boiler can hold from 3 to 6 liters of water, while floor heating units hold from 9 to 30 liters.
Having clarified the internal volume of all heating radiators, pipelines and heat exchanger, you can proceed to the selection of the expansion tank. This element of the heating system is very important, because it determines the maintenance of optimal pressure in the heating circuit.
On the exact determination of the full volume of the heating system depends on its correct operation and efficiency, as well as the operation in the optimal mode and other elements of the system. The most important thing in correctly determining the volume of the heating circuit is that each heating boiler is designed for a certain volume of coolant. If the volume of the heating system is excessive, the boiler will constantly work. This will noticeably reduce the service life of the heating device, and will entail unplanned costs. The volume of the heating circuit must be calculated correctly.
Different Ways to Install a Cast Iron Radiator
How many liters in 1 section of the cast iron radiator?
Although manufacturers of radiators made of steel, aluminum and bimetal say that cast iron counterparts have outlived their usefulness, this is not true. Indeed, it has been 160 years since heaters made of this metal were first installed, and at the time they made a real breakthrough in supplying homes with heat.
At the present time, the old Soviet batteries are hardly to anyone’s liking, but their modern analogues have become quite different. Starting from appearance and ending with how much water in one section of the cast-iron battery, everything has changed in these “old-timers” of heating systems.
Cast-iron radiators of the old and new type
Cast iron ribbed radiators still work in many apartments and institutions built during the time of the Soviet Union. Such a long service life is due to their technical characteristics. In the old days, there were two types of cast iron radiators:
- Classic. these are well known to all “accordion”. The volume of water in a cast iron battery of this type was 1.5L. At its empty weight of 7.1 kg, it instantly increased to 8.6 kg after filling with the coolant. As a rule, one section of the battery had a thermal power of 170 watts, and to heat a room of 20 m2 required 11-12 elements, which together weighed 85 kg without the coolant, and filled. 103 kg.
- Vintage models were rare, looked presentable, but their weight was even more. 12-14 kg without the coolant. The volume of the section of the cast iron radiator of the vintage type was also 1.The capacity of the fireplace was much less. only 150-156 W.
They were really heavy radiators that needed regular touch-ups and their sharp angles made them dangerous for children.
Modern cast iron batteries have parameters that are fundamentally different from the old “monsters”:
- Average weight of one section. 4 kg, which is half less than the Soviet heaters.
- The volume of water in the new generation cast iron radiator is 0.8 liters.
- Heat output level of one section
How many liters in a battery | Construction blog
When designing a heating system, many people ask the question. but how many liters fit in one section of the battery? What it’s for? Yes it’s simple, the more fluid in the radiators the longer they need to heat. heating, and the more gas. electricity is wasted. And the power of the boiler is not the last characteristic. Also, many of us pour not regular water, and antifreeze, and they just need to know the capacity and the pipes and radiators of heating. Anyway knowing the capacity of the battery (one section), it is the right knowledge, is always useful.
Of course, we touched on the capacity of batteries in the article. aluminum or cast iron radiators. But today, laying them all out.
How many liters in an aluminum battery
Now the most popular radiators. Of course, the capacity of one section can vary by twice, depending on the height and size. However the capacity of one section of the smallest aluminum battery is 0.3 liters. Capacity of the largest section of the radiator is up to 1 liter (0,930 liters to be exact). As you can see it is very economical.
So if you have 10 sections, the least amount of water is 3 liters (if there are small radiators) and almost 10 liters (if there are large radiators).
Aluminum radiator heats effectively due to its structure, it already takes into account where the cold air will flow in, and where it will come out already heated (probably all noticed a lot of ridges and ribs).
How many liters in a cast-iron radiator
Cast iron radiators, a little surrendered (not in such demand), but it is also a popular type of radiator. Heating a house or apartment with cast iron radiators is also effective and here is why. Capacity of one section of a cast-iron radiator is 5 liters (this is a standard cast-iron radiator of MS-140A brand). Such radiators are in many Soviet and post-Soviet homes. Since the radiator holds 5 liters, and the heat return it has a lot, and therefore it will effectively heat the room. 10 cast-iron radiators hold 50 liters of water. Cast iron radiators do not have so many ribs and ribs, and probably he does not need it.
If you want to beautifully decorate your cast iron radiator, I suggest you read THIS ARTICLE.
That’s all for today, read our repair blog.
How much water goes into a cast iron radiator. Building Portal
Many of us, faced with the installation or reconstruction of heating systems ask the question, but how to count how much water in the heating system?
The answer is simple. take a piece of paper, a pen and a calculator. First of all it should be understood that the total volume will be equal to the sum of the volumes of each element of the system. Below we give values for the most common elements.
Calculation of the coolant in the radiators:
For steel panel radiators:
- Type 11. 0.25 l for every 10 cm of radiator length (for radiator models with a height of 500 mm)
- 22 type. 0.5 l for every 10 cm of the radiator length (for radiator models with a height of 500 mm)
If you need to calculate the volume for radiators of non-standard height (e.g. 300, 400, 600 mm). use the interpolation method. For example, the volume of a type 22 heating radiator with a height of 300 = 0.5 L / 500 300 = 0.3 L. Depending on the manufacturer data may vary, but not significantly.
For sectional radiators:
Quantity of coolant in the pipes:
- dia. 20 mm. 0.17 liters/meter long pipe
- dia. 25 mm. 0.3 l/m
- dia. 32 mm.
- dia. 40 mm.
- dia. 50 mm.
- dia. 1/2 inch (15 mm). l / meter of pipe
- dia. 3/4 in (20 mm).
- dia. 1 inch (25 mm).
- dia. 1.5 inch (40 mm).
- dia. 2 inch (50 mm).
Volume of water in the boiler
For wall mounted gas boilers 3-6 liters.
For floor standing gas boilers and parapet gas boilers, depending on the capacity and accordingly the size of the boiler, the value varies between 10-30 liters. You can look more precisely in the specifications of the appliance itself.
In this uncomplicated way, adding up all the values. we can determine the volume of the system.
It is reasonable to calculate the amount of coolant in the system if:
- We determine how much volume we need an expansion tank
- how much coolant we need (if we use antifreeze)
- we choose the circulating pump
- Theoretically, I admit that I missed something. If you find it, write to the post will certainly take into account!
It categorically does not make sense to calculate the volume to:
- Calculate how much less gas consumption will be in case of replacement of pipes for radiators (there is a relationship, but not directly proportional, the calculation will not be correct).
- Select the boiler output. It is not logical to choose a boiler, based on the amount of water in the system. After all, our ultimate goal is not to heat water, but to compensate for the heat loss that is incurred in our building.
This is a simple way to calculate the volume of coolant in the heating system. I hope the article was useful. Warmth and comfort to you!
How to save gasHow to choose the most efficient and economical boiler
How much water in the aluminum radiator
In the pursuit of performance and practicality appeared on the shelves of rafters stores and in the catalogs of the world’s manufacturers of aluminum heating batteries for a private home or apartment. Excellent performance of heat conductivity and heat dissipation, along with the lightness and attractive appearance, have earned aluminum radiators popularity and distribution.
However, you should take a closer look at these heat exchangers and understand the details of their strengths and obvious weaknesses, which should not be kept quiet about when choosing radiators for your heating system.
Types of aluminum radiators
In turn, aluminum heating batteries are divided into two types, depending on the technology used in their production:
For their manufacture, all sections of the device are cast from a special alloy based on aluminum with the addition of silicon, giving the material a special strength in conditions of high pressure. The individual parts of the radiator structure are joined together by inert-gas welding.
- Durable and tight joints that guarantee high quality and efficiency of the products.
- Possibility to create radiators of different length and power by changing the number of sections.
In the production of this type of radiators, the parts are not cast, but are extruded under high pressure and then pressed with the upper and lower collectors, which are made by casting. In some cases, to mount the individual parts of the battery using composite type adhesive, which makes these products even cheaper.
- Slightly higher heat output than the cast radiators.
- Smaller volume of sections, so they require less coolant.
- Less weight of the radiator because of the thinness of the fins.
- Low cost.
- Impossibility of repair and disassembly of the radiator.
- Probability of leaks in the connection area of the manifold with the section. This may be due to insufficient quality of the adhesive or wear and tear of the rubber or teflon o-rings.
- The presence of crackling noises arising from temperature differences in the operation of appliances.
Useful tip. when choosing radiators made of aluminum, it is better to opt for variants made by casting. They have thicker walls and better withstand high operating pressure in the system.
If, however, when buying the decisive importance is the low weight and cost of these products, then it makes sense to choose extruded aluminum heating radiators, the price per section of which is much lower than the batteries of the cast type.