Features and uses
The first dishwasher was invented back in 1850, but at the time the product was inconvenient and unreliable, so it was not in wide demand. After that, there were several more attempts to introduce such a useful technique, but all of them also failed. A really usable machine that made household chores easier was created by Englishman William Howard Leavens in 1924. It was similar to the modern one, but still needed refinement. The final design was made in 1940, but the product was still too expensive for the masses of people to use.
Dishwashers only became popular in the late 1970s, and by 2012, the device was installed in 75% of German and American apartments.
Dishwasher performs chores that many people still do by hand. The purpose of the device is to clean, rinse, and in some cases dry dishes. The operating principle of most machines is 5 cycles of processing utensils: preparation, soaking, washing, rinsing, and drying. We suggest you take a closer look at each step of the job.
- Preparing. The first step in using the dishwasher is to load the dishes in special trays, similar to a dishwasher stand. Next, the machine should be loaded with detergent in the form of powder or tablets or a special concentrated detergent designed for such equipment. Then select the mode and you can go about your business while the appliance performs its work.
- Soaking. The dishes are soaked to prevent pieces of food from sticking or burning. The dishwasher design splashes cold water on the dishes with a small amount of detergent and holds for some time. Soaking allows for easy removal of food remains.
- Washing. To wash the dishes, the machine sprays them with pressurized jets of water (the water temperature depends on the program selected). Depending on the model, the water sprayers are located on the bottom, top, or both sides simultaneously. Sprayers rotate and with a head of water wash away food debris and grease from the dishes.
- Rinse. After washing the dishes the machine rinses them several times with clean water or water and rinse aid. If you add a rinse aid to the dishwasher, there will be no traces of dried-on drops of liquid on the dishes.
- Drying. This step is not built into all dishwashers, but most of them. There are three types of drying: hot air, condensation drying and mineral drying (zeolite drying). The first method consists in evaporation of moisture through the supply of hot air, for this mechanism is equipped with a special heat exchanger. The second method implies that after rinsing, the machine heats the water (and therefore the dishes) and then drains the boiling water. The machine walls cool down quicker than the dishes, so all the liquid evaporates from the hot dishes and condenses on the inside of the machine. For the third method, a tank with zeolite is installed under the tank of the dishwasher. during washing the water heats up the mineral, which in turn begins to release heat that dries the dishes.
The advantage of such a dryer is that no steam will escape from the tank when the door is opened.
Dishwashers are first and foremost divided into two main categories: industrial and household. Let’s consider each group in more detail.
- Industrial. Industrial dishwasher is designed for use in hotels, cafes, restaurants and other establishments where large amounts of dishes need to be washed. Professional machine is designed so that it qualitatively cleans a huge number of utensils in a short period of time, as well as economical use of resources. There are three types of product design: tunnel, dome and frontal. Industrial devices. it is an expensive pleasure, intended for large companies, in apartments and private houses to install such equipment is not expedient.
- Household. Household dishwasher should meet the needs of the general public, so manufacturers create an impressive range of product models. The device for home use is distinguished not only by its wide functionality, but also by its attractive appearance.
The second important classification of dishwashers is the method of loading, there are two types: horizontal and vertical loading. The way of loading does not affect the functionality and quality of work of the device. Let us consider in detail each type of loading.
- Vertical Loading. Vertical-loading dishwashers assume installation of dishes in the baskets and trays through the lid. Such models are limited in capacity. at one time you can wash a maximum of 10 sets of dishes.
- Horizontal loading. The design is more common than the vertical model. Sometimes these models are called front-loading models because they have an external front panel instead of a lid.
The next criterion by which dishwashers are divided into several types is the method of installation. In total, there are four types of dishwashers on the method of installation: fully built-in, partially built-in, freestanding and compact. The principle of each type of equipment is the same, the functionality is also the same. This variety of forms of appliances exists so that everyone can find the right machine to integrate into existing or planned kitchen interiors. We suggest you take a closer look at the classification of dishwashers according to the method of installation.
Built-in dishwasher perfectly fits into almost any kitchen, because it is completely hidden by means of a decorative furniture panel made of the same material as the entire kitchen furniture. The positive side of the device is that only the owners of the apartment will be aware of its existence. If guests don’t know that there’s a dishwasher in the kitchen, they won’t even notice it, because it’s built into the furniture.
The appliance is operated by means of a special panel located on the top of the door. When the machine is closed, the panel is hidden under the decorative part of the furniture. This protects the technical components from dirt and damage, but at the same time prevents you from looking at the display to see which cycle the machine is in. Several popular manufacturers, such as Bosch, AEG and Siemens, offer a solution to this problem. they make models that project a timer on the floor next to the door.
This feature, however, is not mandatory. the product can be comfortably operated without looking at the display.
It is possible to install a freestanding dishwasher in an existing kitchen, the main thing is to find a suitable place for it. The device is not part of the kitchen furniture, so you can install it in any part of the room. Such a model is suitable for those apartments, which already have a new kitchen, but still do not have a dishwasher.
Nevertheless, when buying a freestanding device, you need to think in advance about how it will fit into the design of the apartment. Manufacturers do not create so many options for the color of the body. there are only white, silver and black models. However, every color is universal, because there are probably other appliances in the kitchen (washing machine or gas stove), which also has a similar color.
Tabletop dishwashers have small dimensions. in most cases it is 45x55x45 cm. Such a device is usually chosen by those people who do not have any other type of equipment in the kitchen. Compactness is the only positive quality of the tabletop machine, which in most cases does not overlap the disadvantages.
Minus design is that it can not accommodate more than 4 sets of dishes. Also, the parameters of the dishwasher do not allow it to hold pots and pans, so some of the utensils still have to be washed by hand. Many users also note that the quality of work of desktop appliances leaves much to be desired, so such models are purchased only in extreme cases.
The characteristics of partially built-in dishwashers are almost identical to fully built-in models, the only difference is the installation of the control panel. it is not in the upper end of the door, and on its front. The front panel allows you to operate the device when the door is closed, and also does not hide the display with the indication of the cycle.
This dishwasher is not hidden from the eyes of guests, but is just as convenient and functional.
Like fully built-in models, a partially built-in machine is installed in the kitchen furniture. Buying and installing such a device in an existing kitchen is a very difficult task. Dishwashers of this type are suitable for those owners who are only planning the interior of their apartment, or are going to make a large-scale repair with the replacement of furniture.
Built-in and non-installed dishwashers. what’s the difference??
Buying a dishwasher is a serious business, and choosing among the huge number of models the one that will meet all the desired parameters is not so easy, especially for the unprepared buyer. All dishwashers differ not only in size, but also in the ability to be built into the furniture, and so they come in:
What’s the difference between all of these dishwashers you need to understand, what their pros and cons are, and then conclude which one will suit you best.
Capacity, or load
It is measured in sets of dishes, and they, in turn, are counted as follows: three plates (usual, deep and dessert), a cup, a saucer, a spoon and a fork. Why there is no knife is unknown to science, and, in general, this measurement of capacity by sets of dishes is conventional: the actual capacity is still less than the stated, but gives a certain idea of how many dishes go in the machine. The 60 cm wide machines have an average capacity of 10 to 12 sets (sometimes up to 14-16), the 45 cm wide machines have an average capacity of 8 to 10, and the compact machines have an average capacity of 3 to 6 sets.
The cabinet for installation of the automatic dishwasher can look in different ways. We suggest you consider a few popular options that are convenient for installation.
Each type of installation presents its own challenges. To minimize them, it is important to comply with the above conditions and requirements specified by the manufacturer in the instructions. Here are a few recommendations for mounting the dishwasher in different locations.
Mounting in the cabinet
If there is a cabinet-bench next to the sink with a width of more than 45 cm, it can be used to install the dishwasher. The advantage of installation close to the services is the possibility to integrate the machine hoses into the already installed system under the sink.
Dishwasher connection options: extended cold water inlet pipe with isolation valve, drain hose outlet into the sink trap, separate electric socket
From the cabinet will have to remove shelves and the back wall, if necessary. the bottom panel. Built-in housing must be brought to a strict vertical position, this is done using adjustable legs.
Important. Then it is necessary to connect the machine to the sewage system, water supply and power supply in turn. If necessary, an additional odour trap with a drainage pipe should be installed.
The decorative front panel, which is attached to the machine door, is usually assembled from the removed cabinet doors or ordered additionally. Partially built-in models do not need to be decorated, so their installation is a little easier.
Installation in a freestanding module
If no free cabinets for new equipment can be found, but there is enough space in the kitchen, you can order a separate module, but it must be installed near the communications.
Drawer for additionally purchased appliances. compact washing machine and dishwasher. The module is installed as close as possible to the sink, which facilitates connection
It’s important to level and secure the unit so it doesn’t vibrate during operation or move the cabinet. Hoses and pipes are routed along the wall, but they are easier to access.
To get to the communications, you can not dismantle the machine, but simply move the cabinet away from the wall. When the dishwasher is installed under a common kitchen countertop, you have to dismantle it for maintenance, because otherwise you can’t reach the hose connections.
If there is a niche in the kitchen for a microwave, oven or other small equipment, it can also be used to mount the dishwasher.
Built-in compact models should not be confused with a freestanding. The latter do not need to be placed in a recess. any horizontal surface is suitable for their installation.
To conceal the dishwasher like all other appliances, the front of the sink is covered with a fasade-inspired decorative trim.
Developers usually think through different options for installing technology, so the installation instructions posted drawings and diagrams with dimensions, helpful hints, technical recommendations
Space for a compact model is easier to find, but do not forget that a large family will not be able to serve a mini-machine.
If recessed installation is not suitable
What to do if there is no space at all in the kitchen to install a recessed model? It remains to consider freestanding versions, the design of which does not require special installation. They can simply be installed on the floor, countertop or in a niche, aligned, and then make the connection.
There is another way to fulfill your own dream of installing a built-in dishwasher. a complete rearrangement of the kitchen set, with the possible repair or transfer of communications. It is more costly, requires not only financial investment, but also time.
How to choose a dishwasher
Once our mothers and grandmothers wondered about the appropriateness of buying a washing machine, because everyone used to do its work by hand. Today it is simply impossible to imagine a home without this equipment, they are in almost every house. Dishwashers are now following the same path, gradually accustoming us to the fact that, in this matter too, it is quite possible to give way to smart mechanisms. But while consumers do not have such devices at the top of their shopping list. Nevertheless, this equipment was created for the same purpose as washing machines. It should minimize manual labor and give its owners extra time to relax or do other important things while the dishes are being washed.
Besides saving time, there are other advantages:
- High-quality washing. Do you ever notice that cutlery loses its luster over time, and that white plates and cups tend to yellow?? There will be no such thing with a machine. Even after a few years, they’ll still look great.
- Disinfection of dishes. Washing and drying of kitchen utensils takes place at high temperature, which your hands simply can’t withstand (up to 90⁰С). So that the quality of cleaning rises from satisfactory to impeccable.
- You are not in contact with chemicals. It takes two seconds to put a tablet in a special compartment, and some products are even available in a soluble package. The machine in rinse mode will remove detergent residues from the surface of the utensils more thoroughly than you.
Dishwashers differ in size, quantity of packages, as well as the method of installation. There is also a separate classification according to the type of drying and the type of motor used. But we are most interested in the parameters and the method of installation, since they primarily affect the choice and operation.
So, according to the method of installation, the following are distinguished:
Some manufacturers classify as a separate type of appliances that are partially built-in, i.e. the appliances have a control panel located not on the front end, but on top of it. In some respects such models are much more convenient, because they allow you to monitor the time to the end of the cycle, the indication of the process or malfunction. But for those who prefer a uniform style in the kitchen and hides all the appliances behind the fronts, it’s not a good option.
What is an integrated dishwasher, why should I get one and is it the same as an under bench?
In terms of size, you can distinguish 3 types of dishwashers:
Full-size units are perfect for large families or those who don’t particularly like to wash dishes, but do a lot of dirty work. In a small kitchen, they are difficult to fit, but if you have a room of 7 squares, it is a good option. Narrow or desk-top units are usually preferred by those who rarely eat at home or live in a small apartment. In the kitchen of a hruschevka, which is rarely more than 6 square meters. m, only a narrow unit will fit, especially if you also need to integrate the washing machine.
Models with the same dimensions can have different storage capacity. This depends on the number of rockers, as well as the design of the baskets. Therefore, when choosing, pay attention to the number of boxes, the availability of separate trays for cutlery, cup holders, the ability to change the size of baskets. usually manufacturers make adjustable only the top.
Another important point: the quality of washing is not only influenced by the number of sprinklers and the products used, but also by the correct layout of dishes in the boxes. So please follow the manufacturer’s instructions. This is also facilitated by the presence of backlight in the chamber.
This group includes built-in dishwashers (for the cabinet) and freestanding analogues.
The dimensions of the devices vary:
- Height: from 82 to 85 cm. the most common options, there are models up to 97 cm in height;
- width and height of the devices. these parameters are often the same, they range from 55 to 60cm.
The considered dimensions are standard. Dishwashers with a height of 80 cm are an exception. The capacity of full-sized units does not always depend on the basic dimensions. So, there are models of appliances that hold the same amount of dishes as a narrow or compact machine. At the same time, the technique differs in resource consumption, which makes full-size models less preferable because of the low capacity and significant energy and water consumption.
The devices, characterized by large dimensions, are not often used in the home. They are chosen for installation in rooms with a non-standard layout, dimensions, configuration. So, there are models with width up to 87 cm. They are difficult to find on the market. Despite this, units of this type do not belong to the professional equipment.
Full-size appliances are used in rooms with a lot of free space, even if the kitchen itself is small.
However, in this case, a model with standard dimensions can still fit in. Such an opportunity arises if you plan to install a small kitchen unit or do without it, using freestanding cabinets.
When selecting the right machine for the right size, the following operating conditions must be taken into account. For example, it is difficult to find devices that exceed 60 cm in depth. This is due to the fact that the technique should not be larger than the countertop in size. So, the width of the working surface is often 60 cm. This is the most convenient option.
In addition, take into account the type of control. The need for this is due to the presence of handles in models functioning on the basis of mechanical and electronic-mechanical systems. These elements will rise above the surface of the cabinet. It is desirable that they do not protrude beyond the front of the kitchen set, i.e. к. it can cause a dangerous situation: during movement past the PM, clothes will cling to the handles.
For installation in furniture, a small gap is provided between the inner surface of the cabinet and the device. This will allow you to properly position such appliances. In addition, the machine, designed for embedding, often has no front panel, which can also affect the overall dimensions, although insignificantly.
These units do not differ from their full-size counterparts in height and depth. They are 450 mm wide. This is the standard for the appliances of this group. The narrowest model. 445 mm. In addition, there are devices with non-standard dimensions: width 466 and 448 mm, depth up to 573 mm. Such models also often exceed their analogues in height, up to 850 mm.
Tabletop dishwashers: width, height, capacity
Tabletop dishwashers are the most compact, comparable in size to ovens or large microwave ovens. Their main advantage is that they can be quickly rearranged if necessary. For small apartments, single people, and those who often eat out or prefer prepared meals, these are ideal.
The classic parameters are as follows:
Recessed dishwashers dimensions
Like freestanding appliances, built-in dishwashers come in full-size, narrow, and compact versions. The height of all 3 options does not exceed 82-83 cm. According to the width it is accepted to allocate narrow 45 cm, full-sized 60 cm.
Consider how to choose a dishwasher by parameters
Both built-in and freestanding dishwashers have a standard list of sets of programs, which provide the operation of the device in various ways.
In order to pick up a dishwasher by parameters, it is necessary to know which of the available built-in programs you will need to use more often. If you do not have a large family and you do not wash a large amount of dishes every day, then you will need a device with low power, but if the machine will be installed in a public institution, where you expect a heavy load on the dishwasher, you should give preference to the device with a reinforced capacity.
The washing programs that are built into the appliance affect your choice especially. Do not install an appliance that does not meet your requirements. If you install a dishwasher in your kitchen that is designed to work in a dining room or restaurant, you will not have efficient use of electricity and water, which will lead to the subsequent replacement of the unit, with a more appropriate.
Automatic programs which are built into the dishwasher:
- Washing lightly soiled dishes;
- Daily for medium soiled dishes;
- For daily washing of heavily soiled dishes;
- Delicate glass;
- Delay timer.
In the case of automatic selection, the machine itself determines the degree of contamination of dishes and water temperature. It is desirable that the machine has an internal light. This gives you more control over the dishwashing process. Units with two beater shells (sprinklers) are much better than those with one. In order not to make a mistake in choosing an assistant, read the advice of users on the forums. If the firm has good ratings, then the product is of high quality.
Dishwasher built-in or not: what is better choose a dishwasher correctly
There are 2 types of dishwashers on the market right now: freestanding and built-in. The first are commonly called “stand-alone”. they are very practical, compact, (usually) and popular.
For specific reasons, many buyers prefer them, but let’s analyze which is better: free-standing or built-in?
For this we need to consider the advantages of these and other models.
What are they like??
There are several variations of such equipment:
And also dishwashers can be divided into types, based on its capacity. The depth usually doesn’t reach more than 55 cm.
The most popular is a 45 cm wide semi-built-in model, because it is compact, narrow, does not take up much space, holds an average number of dishes (9-12 sets), which is suitable for the average family of 2-4 people. Such a machine can easily and without problems can be placed among standard-sized kitchen cabinets.
Small dishwashers come in an average width of 45-55 cm, a height of 45-60 cm and a depth of 50 cm. There are also narrow models, which are taller (80-82 cm), but have the same other parameters.
Full-size machines are larger, respectively, and the kitchen must be more spacious to place them, otherwise it will be very uncomfortable to use them. Such devices reach as high as the narrow ones, 82 cm, 60 cm wide and 55 cm deep.