What to replace the paper strips for depilation

The peculiarity of bandage shugaring is the use of strips that are glued to the skin over a layer of sugar paste. The bandage is torn off sharply (this is done along the line of hair growth), along with it the caramel with the hairs is torn off.

This technique is used as shugaring for the bikini zone and armpits (the size of strips. 70×45 mm), and for depilation of hands and feet (strips size 175×70 mm).


Despite the overall safety and convenience, shugaring (bandage technique) is not suitable for everyone.

There are a number of contraindications to its use:

  • Heart failure;
  • Hypersensitivity to the components of the sugar paste;
  • Diabetes mellitus (decompensated form);
  • Skin diseases (eczema, dermatitis, psoriasis);
  • The presence of wounds, mechanical injuries;
  • Papillomas and warts in the treated area.

Important! It is extremely undesirable to perform bandage shugaring people under 12 years of age, pregnant and lactating mothers, as well as women during menstruation. All of the above have to do with changes in hormonal background, which can affect the susceptibility to pain.

Pluses and minuses of the procedure

In comparison with manual shugaring, bandage has several advantages:

  • This method is easy to learn and use at home, as it does not imply complex skills and abilities;
  • Sugar depilation with bandages is suitable even for those who suffer from varicose veins. It is less traumatic to the skin than manual;
  • Through the use of bandages can handle a large area for a relatively short time;
  • Reddening after the procedure quickly disappears, leaving fewer small bruises and ingrown hairs;
  • Sugar paste, thanks to the possibility of multiple application of the band, is less consumed;
  • The method allows you to remove hairs of different lengths and hardness;
  • Bandage shugaring remains effective when performed in a humid room. Even the humidity of the skin does not prevent to remove hairs;
  • Sugar paste on the band makes it possible to depilate hard-to-reach areas of the body, such as the inner thighs.

The procedure has disadvantages, occurring when an inexperienced person. Salon masters almost no such problems. For example, if you unknowingly tear the bandage, the hairs do not come out, but break off. In the same case, there may be another unpleasantness. the appearance of small bruises.

DIY WAX STRIPS | Zero Waste Reusable Wax Strips | Hair Removal Hack

Previously (more than five years ago) I used different methods of waxing and depilation. “Jumping” from one to the other. Veet wax, and the epilator, have always been a favorite. Well, and the standard razor came to the rescue when you need to urgently clean up. But, then I realized that all these options do not suit me for a variety of reasons, and I switched to the side of sugar waxing. It is also shugaring.

Nowadays, no one will be surprised neither shugaring, nor a recipe for making sugar paste, but I still want to share my experiences and observations.

So, for ease of navigation on the review, I will divide it into several parts:

  • Recipe for making sugar paste that turns out always.
  • Shugaring techniques. Which ones I’ve tried, and which ones I love the most.
  • What to do if there are no certain materials? What to replace?
  • Deep bikini waxing. All the nuances, and all about the delicate epilation.
  • Shugaring armpits. The same as in p.4.
  • Sugaring my legs/arms/neck
  • Conclusion and tips

I used to cook pasta in the microwave, naively believing that it would be faster and easier and more convenient. But I was not always happy with the result. It was not uncommon to end up with a sugar caramel instead of a squelch. Eventually, I switched to cooking pasta with gas, and now the pasta always comes out perfect! I will share with you a recipe that works every time!

The proportions are the same, but the amount of paste, of course, different. So, if I need to wax my shins, armpits, and arms. I take a quantity of 8/2/1 if deep bikini is also added to those areas. the amount is multiplied by two. Т.е. 16/4/2.

Where 8(16). tablespoons (with peas) of sugar, 2(4). tablespoons of water, 1 (2). teaspoonfuls (no scoops) of citric acid.

I initially mix sugar and water in a small enamel bowl and stir to dissolve.

Next, I place the bowl on a low heat, and stir constantly to combine. By the way, I do not advise to change the fire. The shuga doesn’t like sudden changes in temperature.

After that, I add citric acid. It does not depend on the brand of acid, you can take any. And yes, it was with lemon juice I liked it better than the shug on the lemon juice.

After adding citric acid paste will be a pleasant, yellow hue.

After waiting a little more time, literally a minute, the paste will become light amber in color. That’s when the shade changes. I immediately remove the paste from the fire, and pour it into another container. The container can be both plastic and enameled. If I’m sure I’ll use a shug right away. I choose any option. But, if I need to store it. I use a plastic container.

When cooled, the paste is almost no darker, and gets the perfect consistency for any technique shugaring. This paste is really versatile, and you can see the consistency in the video before the recipe.

At the beginning of experience with this epilation. I have a preference for the manual technique. But. Later I went back to the bandage, and to the spatula. With the bandage technique, I epilate legs, arms, armpits, and neck fluff. Sometimes I use it on a regular bikini. I’m more comfortable doing deep bikinis with the spatula technique.

For home shugaring there are no certain and specific materials. precisely, they are there, but they can always be replaced.

I usually buy packages of spatulas and strips for the bandage technique on Wildberries. 100 spatulas and 100 strips can be purchased there for 200 each. And enough of this good for a long time.

If you don’t have any of that. The strips can be replaced by a normal cotton cloth, for clarity decided to take a picture of the process just with her. Spatulas are better not to replace anything, as their shape allows you to simplify the process of epilation.

Also, powder or talcum powder. can be replaced by any starch.

Before to tell about types of epilation, I want to note that the spatula is always applied to skin AGAINST hair growth, and is pulled down. in the direction of their growth. With any technique, the paste must be pulled off as parallel to the skin as possible.

Sugar deep bikini waxing. it doesn’t hurt. In fact, shugaring such a delicate area was much more painless than waxing. Deep bikini. This is the only area in which I use talcum powder. As on physiological features there always wet.

I absolutely cannot use lidocaine and special anesthetic ointments, because I am allergic to this drug. But, if you don’t have one. I recommend buying lidocaine spray.

You should always watch the tension of the skin for a comfortable epilation. And this is especially important when removing hairs in the area of the labia. Yes, to this area it is desirable to apply either spatula or manual technique. Not only because the areas with hairs are small, but also because there hairs have different sides of growth.

The effect lasts for three weeks. But, in the beginning, the other hairs were awakening. on a single scale. I used tweezers to remove them.

Sugaring underarms is also different in that the hairs grow in different directions. That is, about half of the hair grows in the upward direction, and the other half. down.I use the bandage technique, applying the wax from the “bare” part, over the hair, and finishing the application also in the hairless area.

Then, after placing the bandage. I tear it off sharply. Most importantly. Is to stretch the skin as much as possible, I usually raise my arm high above my head.

Armpit hair length should be 3-5mm, but my hairs in this area have too long a root. Apparently, this is also due to years of shaving this area.

Photo of hairs plucked, I remove the quote, as it is not aesthetically pleasing.

No need to use deodorant for 24 hours after shugaring.

I also wax this area for 3 weeks.

On the neck I have a slight fluff, on the hands. Thin and blond hairs, and on the legs. they grow in “islands”. Therefore, shugaring these areas usually takes 5 minutes at most.

There are no special restrictions, the only thing is that I have a place on my leg with a vein (varicose veins), and it is on top of her I do not remove hairs with paste, but I do it as an exception. tweezers.

So, on a hairy leg according to all the rules I apply the paste in a medium layer.

Pardon the overgrowth in the photo

I do not apply the paste directly on the entire leg, but in a medium length strip. It has to do not only with “islands”, but also with the convenience of tearing off the band.

Instead of a special strip. this time I used a cotton cloth.

After tearing the bandage. not a single hair left in the treated area (on the side of the photo). (I haven’t done it yet).

The easiest way to remove them, or bandage, or adding a fresh piece of paste, and further plucking on the selected technique.

So, shugaring at home I certainly recommend! For a more comfortable and relaxed shugaring, I advise:

  • Do not use oil products directly before epilation, and for more hair lifting before epilating any area. Massage with a scrub without oils in composition.
  • At the end of epilation apply a special gel or cream to the skin. I use this one. It more than satisfies me!
  • It is not necessary to treat the entire area of the skin with paste, several times, if there is only 1-2 hairs. It is better to remove with tweezers than to increase the risk of bruising. But, in all my experience of shugaring. I only left myself a bruise once.
  • After shugaring should not use fat lotions, and after 2-3 days. use a scrub. When the hairs will start to break through, it can be seen. But, they do not grow in foam, but with a thin tip. To avoid their ingrowth. Also scrub to help.
  • For shugaring deep bikini do not forget to use talcum powder.
  • The bowl after cooking the paste, and the container from the paste is better to fill with hot water. Then the sugar is easy to rinse off. And store such a paste is best in the refrigerator, warming it in a water bath before use.

At this point I’m done! Be beautiful and well-groomed!

One day I got the idea to master shugaring, after which they bought these strips according to the method that is not cheaper.

The description indicated that these strips are ideal for vaxing (and the name says it), but after studying the strips from another manufacturer, more expensive by half, not much difference noticed.

Stacked tightly, they were in a thin bag. The strips are quite dense and rigid, not a bad change of shape, a little rough to the touch. They have the optimal size for a comfortable procedure.

In Use.

Nothing complicated in the procedure in the bandage technique shugaring no, personally for me it was uncomfortable and takes more time than a manual, as well as the consumption of paste is huge. Now most of the strips are just in case the paste sticks to the skin.

The material is strong, it doesn’t flake or leave any bits and pieces. One strip can be used by one side 3-4 times without loss of quality results. I also fold it in half with the sticky side in, and use it on a small area of my skin where I don’t need a whole strip.

The result depends entirely on the skill.

What to do if I suddenly run out of strips?

This was also the case when I first bought the paste in a cartridge. Please take the following in a humorous and non-serious manner.

First, of course, I visited the Internet. Of all the options available, only one came up. the usual printer paper. Cut into strips and go. It’s pretty good and effective, but it starts to tear when the paste is a little thicker than it should be. You have to sit next to the microwave and monitor))

Baking parchment. Slightly better went, but the problem is the same. it tears, but the paste is allowed in a slightly thicker state.

And my “favorite” in this outrage is the kitchen napkins (or towels) on a roll from Fix Price. I do not have a photo, because I can not catch on sale, but analogues in other stores have not seen.

They’re not paper, they’re like cloth. They’re great, but I had to get used to them, because they’re as soft as rags, and apply across the fibers so they don’t stretch.

Of course, it’s always better to use professional products, and this is more of an exception.

What can replace the strips

If you want to spend the procedure shugaring not necessarily purchase strips factory. You can make strips for shugaring at home. As a production material it is allowed to use ordinary office paper.

Please note. Office paper is not originally designed for shugaring, so at any time can tear.

If there is no office paper in the house, you should not resort to the help of notebook or newspaper sheets for two reasons:

This material can be replaced by parchment for baking or tracing paper. As an analogue of tissue strips is acceptable to use linen or cotton material. Synthetics are strictly excluded.

Bandages can be cut from an old bed sheet, this option is simple and affordable. It is important that the fabric was strong enough and held its shape. An old terry towel is also suitable for making the strips yourself. There are two things to consider here:

  • Terry cloth grip the paste better;
  • The depilation process can be more unpleasant and painful than with conventional material.

replace, paper, strips, depilation

What to replace the bandage for shugaring?

Bandage technique depilation involves the use of special strips. They are applied to the skin after the application of sugar paste, and then removed, allowing you to immediately capture a large number of hairs. Sometimes on Elseda courses beginners ask the question “what can replace the bandage for shugaring”. There is nothing to answer here. The cost of bandage strips is not high, so there is no point in trying to make something up. Still, let’s take a closer look at this issue.

Waxing (Waxing)

Waxing is one of the most common procedures at home. Cosmetic market offers a large selection of both the product for depilation, and accessories for this procedure. What to stop your choice?

On the manufacturer, packaging, ease of use, color or price? What is the best wax for epilation and how to choose it??

What is the best wax for depilation

As part of the waxing wax can be a variety of resins and waxes, essential oils, paumer compositions. While waxes and resins are used both natural and synthetic, oils, including essential oils, in the mixture for epilation are always natural. The wax resin envelops the upper part of the hair, thus ensuring their capture. Oils serve a dual function in depilation:

In order to answer the question what is the best wax for waxing, you need to consider a few basic factors in its choice:

Secrets of wax depilation video from Kamila Beauty

Which strips for depilation is better

Currently produced fabric and paper strips for depilation. Despite the fact that the principle of using both types is approximately the same, each product has its own advantages, as well as some disadvantages. Paper wax strips are in demand because of their low price and ease of use. In this case, the kit usually includes special waxing cloths to remove wax residue.

Disposable use is the only disadvantage of paper strips. Tissue products are slightly higher in cost. You will also have to spend extra money on wax, since it is not included in the kit. Of the advantages of this type of wax strips can be identified multiple use. In any case, what strips for depilation is better, decides each girl or woman after trying both kinds.

After buying the necessary wax kit, you need to study the information on how to use waxing strips for depilation. As a rule, the procedure consists of the following steps:

Wax strips should only be glued to a clean and dry area of the skin. How to do waxing with wax strips, it is usually written and drawn on the package or in the instructions, so there should not be any difficulties. Directly Before gluing the strip should be heated by rubbing it between the palms of your hands for 5-7 seconds. Then carefully divide the strip into two halves and stick each of them to the skin, smooth in the direction of hair growth with several movements, and then sharply remove the strip already against the direction of hair growth. On the skin is usually left a little wax, which is removed with cosmetic oil or special wipes.

After a single performance of such a procedure, any woman will know without tips how to do waxing with wax strips at home. It so happens that at the right time there is not enough money to buy wax strips, so many girls are wondering what to replace strips for depilation. There are a huge number of answers to this question. Usually offered options, tested on their own experience.

In order not to risk your skin, it is best to contact a professional beautician in advance, who will give sensible advice than to replace strips for depilation without harming the delicate skin.

What is the best way to wax different parts of the body?

The cold method is the easiest to use and most accessible to everyone, t.к. Ready-made wax patches or strips are available in any cosmetic boutique (or department) and in pharmacies. How to do home waxing this way there are instructions on the package, but we remind you again that the strips are applied from yourself (in the direction of hair growth), and removed. on itself, t.е. The cold method is the easiest and most affordable for everyone, because it prevents the wax from growing.

Cold waxing is most commonly performed on legs and the bikini area.

The warm method is also quite available for self-use. Wax in a soft state can be in different packaging. It does not need to be heated strongly, it is enough to hold under a stream of hot water or simply with your hands. But if you do not know how to do home epilation with warm wax, it is better to buy in the form of special cartridges with a roller, which allows you to apply a thin layer of wax, while capturing each hair, which without special skills to do is not easy.

Do not forget the paper or cloth strips to remove the wax. Under no circumstances remove the strips upwards, only against the growth of hair. on itself.

Warm wax is used for waxing arms and legs.

The hot method is not so called because it is applied to the skin in this state. Simply for the melting of the hard wax used for this method, you need a higher temperature. And the wax itself is applied in a sufficiently warm state, so as not to damage the skin. Very often by inexperience at home procedure happens burns when the mixture is applied to the skin. That is why the hot waxing method is better to perform in the salon, where experienced professionals take all the safety measures of the procedure.

True now you can buy again cartridges and professional cassette wax melts. If this method of hair removal suits you, then get a wax melter that facilitates the process of heating the wax and eliminates its overheating, and thus receiving burns from the hot compound. And then you will no longer have the question how to do home waxing. For you it will be an easy, and most importantly effective way to remove hair.

Because the secret of a smooth, velvety skin after waxing is that along with the hairs are removed and the dead skin particles.

Only the hot method of waxing can be used in a particularly sensitive area of the armpits and upper lip. As well as other areas of the body.

How to make a wax for waxing at home

Melt the ingredients in a water bath. Cool down to 40 degrees. Use the mixture for waxing procedure. Recipe 2. You will need:

In a water bath, melt the waxes first, let cool down a bit, then add glycerin and essential oil (lavender oil). Waxing for waxing can be used as intended.

Note. The prepared preparations can be kept in the refrigerator until the next treatment. Before using lightly warm the wax in the microwave or in a water bath.

For the most comfortable waxing at home, use our tips in this article on how to do waxing by yourself.

What’s the best wax for deep bikini waxing?

It is better to use a briquette wax, whose melting temperature is quite high, and what explains the effectiveness and painlessness of the procedure for intimate zone waxing.

Granular wax consumes very economical, it lasts for a long time, even with regular treatments. Its melting point is lower than that of the briquette wax, but this wax is also effective for underarm and bikini waxing.

But for hair removal on the face it is better to use a special wax, which is usually sold in cartridges with a narrow roller, which facilitates the procedure. The composition of the wax for the face provides gentle and gentle hair removal, without irritating the skin.

One common way to combat unwanted hair on certain parts of the body is to use wax. Despite the fact that this method is considered effective, it has some disadvantages. First of all, this applies to the remnants of wax, which can remain on the skin after the procedure. Therefore, many women who remove hair at home, interested in the question of how to wash off the wax after depilation. Currently, there are several proven ways.

In this case, the main condition for the removal of wax is the immediate application of the procedure.

Methods for removing wax residue after waxing

When using any method of wax removal, it is necessary to remember that all actions should be performed clearly and quickly, then a positive result will be guaranteed. So, to remove the wax after waxing, the following remedies are used:

As a rule, many women to remove the remnants of wax use special wipes that are included in the set for wax depilation. They can also be purchased separately. Unfortunately, such wipes do not always help to cope with the stuck wax, so you have to use proven folk remedies.

How to wash off the wax after waxing without special wipes, even young girls know.

Any vegetable oil is suitable for this, although olive oil is considered the best, because it not only removes the wax particles, but also nourishes the skin with essential vitamins and trace elements. It is enough to apply the oil on a cotton pad and gently wipe the problem areas. To remove the wax after depilation suitable any greasy cream.

First of all, it will clean the skin from the wax, as well as soften it, which eliminates the appearance of possible irritation. Those women who have experience in waxing, know what to remove the wax after depilation. They buy in advance special lotions, gels or sprays, usually on an oily basis.

These cosmetic products usually have several effects. In addition to the soothing effect many lotions have an antiseptic and antioxidant effect.

Therefore, after using such a lotion the skin is free of wax and will be soft and smooth. You can also remove the wax from the skin with normal soapy water, but beauticians do not recommend using this method, because after it the skin becomes dry and irritated, which requires the use of additional emollients. An unusual way to remove wax after depilation is to use a cotton cloth and a hair dryer. The principle is very simple: the cloth is placed on the area with residual wax and heated with a hair dryer. The result is that the wax should come off the skin and adhere to the cotton cloth.

Despite the fact that this method is effective, it is not recommended to use it, because you can get burned by carelessness.

What to replace strips for waxing

It should be dense enough not to tear, and also should not pull strongly, otherwise the procedure risks turning into torture. Such paper for depilation is needed if you use hot wax, which is removed with clean strips, or to remove sugar paste from the skin (when shugaring). This procedure is very easy to do at home, takes little time and does not require any skills. Try replacing the paper strips with a thick cloth or thin printer paper.

One depilation strip can be used until it no longer captures the hairs. Paper that is too thick will not adhere well to the body, and thin paper may tear. Therefore, the manufacturers of such products have come up with a more convenient and quick option. wax strips for depilation, which is very easy to use.

For normal skin. Wax strips and depilation paper are sold at any cosmetic store at affordable prices, so this type of hair removal can afford every woman. Also, try not to apply the strip on the same area of the face more than twice, otherwise it may cause irritation.

Veet Suprem’Essence. Veet Veet wax strips are one of the most popular hair removal products. Cloth strips work on the same principle, but they are more uncomfortable than paper strips, and cost more. To make the procedure comfortable, buy in a pharmacy anesthetic cream or spray, which should treat the skin for an hour and a half before depilation. For example, the strips for the face will be much smaller in size than those for the legs. You can replace the strips and homemade paper, but here you have to experiment.

To avoid ingrown hairs, use moisturizing creams every day. This compound captures the hair, and comes off with a strip against the growth of hair. Skin care after waxing strips After using wax strips the skin should rest.

We hope this article has helped you understand how to use waxing strips correctly at home. These strips contain essential oils, moisturizing your skin and making it soft and smooth. Veet Naturals. Don’t try to wash off the wax with water or lotion, it will only smear more on your skin.

^ Hair removal with wax strips in the bikini area The bikini area is a very delicate area, so it must be handled with care. Also, scrub the waxed parts of your body a couple of times a week and wash with a stiff washcloth. You need slightly smaller strips than usual for this. Hair removal with wax strips at home (instructions) How to do depilation with wax strips at home?

The instructions are very simple: Clean the skin in the desired place (it is better to take a shower), wipe it dry, and apply talcum powder or baby powder to prevent sweat; Take the strip and warm it thoroughly in the palms of your hands, separate one half and stick it to the skin, smoothing it with force along the hair growth; Wait 15-20 seconds and tear the strip with a quick, sharp movement against the growth of the strip, while holding the other hand to avoid injury (bruising); Repeat the process over the entire area of the skin, and then take the oily napkin, usually included in the depilation kit, and wipe the skin, removing the remains of wax from it. Contains almond oil and vitamin E, which protects the skin from irritation and makes it soft and smooth. You can choose paper strips for depilation for dry, sensitive, oily or normal skin, as well as for different parts of the body. In this article, we will tell you about what kinds of such strips there are, how to use them correctly and for what areas of the body, what is better to replace them if necessary, and what nuances you need to know before carrying out the procedure at home. You can replace the store strips with pieces of cloth, such as chintz. Veet hair removal strips review All of these products should not be used for depilation of the face, chest and deep bikini zone.

A cotton pad soaked in any oil can be used instead of an oily napkin. Do not forget that after the procedure the face may remain red for several hours. For Dry Skin. Deep bikini depilation with wax strips is not recommended. you’re unlikely to get it done perfectly, t.к. You won’t see the direction of hair growth.

Since hair in the bikini zone is usually much thicker and stronger than, for example, on the legs, depilation can be very painful. Contains aloe vera extract, which prevents the wax from drying out the skin. In addition to Veet, not a bad products produce companies Oriflame, Faberlic, Avon, Byly, Shary, etc.д. Do not use any cosmetics or other products on it for several hours. Among the waxing strips you can choose from: Veet for sensitive skin.

When depilation of the face remember that this, as well as the bikini zone, is a very sensitive area, so before using strips do an allergy test. Deep bikini zone is best left to professionals, and at home you can remove unwanted hair on the panty line. with this task wax strips cope well. With these strips you will forget about the itching and unpleasant dryness after the procedure. Before the procedure itself, remove the film, remove the remnants of the product, wipe the skin, and you can proceed! Wax strips. Armageddon for unwanted hair Which waxing strips for depilation is best to choose?

Here everything depends on individual preferences. If you are allergic to wax, stop using strips and replace them with another product, such as shugaring or razor. This series of products with shea butter is suitable for removing hair on the legs. For the latter areas, there are special small strips designed for very sensitive and delicate areas.

Nuances of using waxing strips If you run out of depilation paper when using hot wax, and there is no time to run to the store, you can come up with an alternative at home. Of course, it is better to buy products from proven manufacturers with whom you have already dealt. Try different companies, paper or cloth strips, see after which hair grows longer, after which there is an allergy, and after which. no. You can also find clean strips (without wax) on sale. These shea butter strips will work for most women with normal skin types.

Most often the strips are paper strips, much less often they are made of cloth.What to replace strips for waxing Wax strips for depilation Removing unwanted hair with wax is one of the most popular ways, but without certain skills to do it yourself is difficult, and takes a lot of

Wax strips for depilation Removing unwanted hair with wax is one of the most popular ways, but without certain skills to do it yourself is difficult, and takes a lot of time. On top is placed the food film. For the face, small strips up to 7 cm long are suitable, or you can cut the larger ones into several small pieces. What is waxing strips?

A wax strip is a small piece of special paper on which a wax compound is applied. Carefully follow the direction of hair growth, and be sure to hold the skin firmly when you tear the strip. Instructions for their use is exactly the same.

Can I use instead of talcum powder for shugaring baby powder

Some newcomers to depilation think that the pharmaceutical, children’s and cosmetic talc. is the same thing. Therefore, the question “what to replace the talcum powder in shugaring” they confidently answer: “baby powder”. But this is not the right solution.

The talcum powder intended for depilation consists of the smallest particles. Therefore, it does not impair the working properties of materials, facilitates hair gripping and ensures reliable protection of the skin during the procedure. Pharmacy formulas and baby powder have larger particles, so they “clog” the paste. As a result, the consumption of materials increases and complicates the work of the master. In addition, the usual powder contains starch, which, getting into the open pores, causes irritation and rashes on the skin.

What can replace the wax strips

Wax strips to remove unwanted vegetation is very effective, but also painful. After such a procedure, the skin can be irritated and even inflamed, and in some cases their use is strictly prohibited in view of the individual intolerance of the active substance. But a wide range of cosmetic personal care products offers some excellent products, which are not inferior in effectiveness.

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