What tools belong to copper ovens

What relates to wooden wind instruments?

Wooden wind instruments include modern flute, goba, clarinet, basket, saxophone with all their varieties, ancient blockflate, shalmey, Shalyumo, etc., as well as a number of folk instruments, such as Balaban, Duduk, Slavika, Swirel, Zurna, Albok.

About five thousand years ago, the first pipes and flute appeared in ancient Egypt. In Hellas they were brought from Thrace (modern Turkey), to the company to Avlos, the predecessors of Goboy. In India and today they play a transverse flansuri flute.

Varieties of wind instruments

There are two main species. Copper and wooden. Initially classified, they were thus depending on what material were made of. Now, to a greater extent, the type of tool depends on the method with which sound is extracted from it. For example, a flute is considered a wooden wind instrument. In this case, it can be made of wood, metal or glass. The saxophone is always produced only by metal, but belongs to the class of wooden winds. Copper tools can be made of various metals: copper, silver, brass and so on. There is a special variety. Keyboards. Their list is not so great. These include Fisharmonium, organ, accordion, melody, button accordion. Air enters them thanks to special fur.

We list the wind instruments. Their list is as follows:

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  • Pipe;
  • Clarinet;
  • Trombone;
  • Accordion;
  • The flute;
  • Saxophone;
  • Organ;
  • Zurna;
  • Oboe;
  • Harmonium;
  • Balaban;
  • Accordion;
  • French horn;
  • Bassoon;
  • Tube;
  • Bagpipes;
  • Sheng;
  • Duduk;
  • Glubly accordion;
  • Macedonian guide;
  • Syakuhati;
  • Ocarina;
  • Serpent;
  • Horn;
  • Helicon;
  • Djerida;
  • Kurai;
  • Trembit.

Some other similar tools can be called.

The main groups of the orchestra, their role and the possibility

The basis of the wind orchestra is a group of instruments that exists under the general name “Saxgornah”. They are named after Adolf Sax, who invented them in the 40s of the XIX century. Saxhorn are distinguished by the homogeneity of menzura and shape.

At first, the Saksgornov family consisted of seven, and then of nine varieties: from sopranino to subcontrabas. In musical practice, three varieties of ordinary copper wind instruments are more often called:

Saxgornah was an improved type of instruments called Bugly (Bugelgorn). Currently, this group is usually called. The main copper group.

Copper brass instruments

At the dawn of the orchestra and the first steps of its further development until the middle of the 19th century, the “copper” was far from as perfect and developed as it became after the invention of the “valve mechanism”, which turned it from natural into chromatic. Thanks to this remarkable transformation that arose for the first time around 1811, the significance of the Commonwealth of Copper wind instruments not only significantly increased in the next decades, but also acquired the outstanding position, which, in fact, was to rightfully occupy.

Like their closest neighbors on the orchestra. Wooden wind instruments, copper wind instruments have exactly the same ability to pull or, better to say, to withstand the sound, and, if to a certain extent, they are inferior to them in some flexibility and brilliant virtuosity, then they have power in return for this. Far left behind, both wooden wind and string tools, even taken together. Therefore, in order to maintain the balance of sonority in the orchestra, the number of wooden wind instruments should be among copper, at least two to one. Only in very rare cases, and then far from always, we can recognize as separate segments of the sound.Radio.Rod of some wooden wind instruments relative equality in relation to sound power with copper. Often than all, “wood” and “copper” are balanced by quite opposite degrees of sound strength. With Piano, the “copper”, the juicy Forte by the “tree” to some extent holds the balance of power, but it is usually instantly violated as soon as the “copper” passes beyond the boundaries of this definition. From this it should be clear that a powerful Fortissimo of copper wind instruments will require other numerical data, and the attitude of two to one will be completely powerless to moderate the raging “copper”. To an even greater extent, all of the above refers to string instruments, where it is not possible to establish any numerical relationship at all, and any attempt in this direction can easily be barren, but simply useless. There is no doubt that all such calculations applied without any connection with the artistic and expressive side of the orchestral sound in general, most often do not reach the goal, since they are “purely arithmetic scholasticism”. An experienced author, feeling the balance of power in the orchestra, regardless of “numerical data”, usually does not need such calculations. They only violate the free flow of his creative thought and do not bring any truly tangible benefit to him.

The artistic and technical capabilities of copper wind instruments are quite diverse, but they are not as rich as the possibilities of a “tree” and especially string. Their volumes, capable of responding to the slightest intentions of the author, are even more constrained, and the means of expressiveness, with all its impressive power, are truncated in time, because even the most penetrating melodic fabric cannot catch up with the attention of the listener with a duration equal to the string. Being quite diverse in the coloring of their sound, copper wind instruments, however, quickly “get tired” and tire of attention much more likely than even a “tree”. This quality of them is especially sharply in force when the “copper” turns out to be the “leading” association of the orchestra in terms of position. Copper wind instruments does not reach that inspired depth, which in such an excess is characteristic. The author who writes in the conditions of a symphonic orchestra for copper wind instruments is even more difficult, since it should show not only a lot of artistic taste, but also feel the “sense of proportion”, the slightest exaggeration of which can easily turn his music into a “garden orchestra »With excessive predominance of a sharp and loud” copper “. Copper brass instruments used in Solo can make an indelible impression, but united together they easily become “threatening force”, which can negate the entire artistic intention of the author. This last circumstance becomes especially tangible if the author considers it possible to neglect those reasonable limits to which “copper” can act quite at ease. Of course, all these fears have nothing to do with the “wind orchestra”, compiled mainly from the same copper instruments and intended for completely different artistic tasks.

In contrast to wooden wind instruments, all representatives of copper are endowed with the ability to reproduce not only the extremely consistent CressCendo and DiminuEndo, but also give immediately a sharp, acute sound with any shade of Piano to a thunderous fortissimo inclusive. This amazing ability of “copper” is often used by composers in dramatic music, where the power of artistic influence on the listener is almost in the first place. With the introduction of “closed” and “stained” sounds on the Waltorns, and Surdin on pipes and partly on thrombons and all other representatives of the “Copper Kingdom”, this area of ​​artistic expressiveness has increased even more. In some respects, she already managed to turn into something completely negative, for she made the musicians forget about all the boundaries of the permitted. Many composers began to use this powerful means of artistic influence without a sufficient basis, and therefore, very quickly “impoverished” it, completely depreciated its impressive acuteness. Now, only a deeply justified musical combination can maintain this sonority at the proper height and force it to preserve the extraordinary tension that no other representative of one or another instrumental association has in the orchestra.

Currently, the combination of copper wind instruments is represented by three or, if we count the instruments of the wind orchestra, then four species that differ from each other with purely mechanical properties, which in this case can be perceived as their “natural properties”. Each of these species has only one characteristic qualities and features. For this reason, the latter circumstance gives the right to see in the unification of copper wind instruments two more or less sharply separate orchestral units, which can be used completely independently. These are valtor on the one hand and pipes with thrombons and a tube. On the other. The Flugelgorn family or French terminology. Saksgornov, and in the old days. Bugelgornov, in symphonic music has an insignificant application. Of the representatives of this kind of instruments, the best was, as you know, a tube, which, due to its characteristic of it and the whole family of flogelgorn, some viscosity in extracting sound, rather, more, than fortunately, had to assume the duties of trombones bass. Other representatives of the same “instruments of the tools” of the Flugelgorn family with replaced mouthpieces, and the flogelhorn itself, in the symphonic orchestra are so rare participants in it that it is here that you can safely and not talk about them. Nevertheless, the only thing that might be remembered is only about the name of the whole family, which sometimes causes some puzzling. The name Flugelhorn, as the big connoisseur of this case Francis William Galpin says, undoubtedly, from the fact that the performers on these instruments always stood on the “right flank” of the military construction, as if heading it. The German name of the family fully indicates that such an order acted mainly in German countries, and the very concept has already spread from there in other countries of Western Europe.

Musical instruments: copper wind instruments

Imagine that pipes suddenly disappeared from the world of musical instruments. Gloomy will turn out a picture. A symphony orchestra will thin a third. The jazz will stall. The brass band will cease to exist. Folk music will suffer.

DIY copper tube alcohol stove

A group of copper wind instruments is small in composition. But it immediately attracts attention with the festive radiance of the metal from which these bizarre curved tools are made. Some of them resemble a horn, others. A giant gold snail. The art of trumpet into a horn or sink was already known in ancient times. Subsequently, people learned to make tools similar to the horn and intended for the military and hunting.

These tools are called thanks to the metal from which the thin.Rolled sheets of copper or brass, or a special alloy, by 60% of copper, 10% nickel, 30% zinc, or silver are made: silver. But in the old days, some of them were made of horns, shells or bones.

There was a time when these instruments made of noble metals, and the musicians believed that valuable metals still give the timbre of the instrument a special shade: silver makes the sound more complete, gold. Soft, platinum. Deep. But these differences, if there are, they are noticeable mainly only to the musicians themselves. Later they decided to conduct a curious experiment. They took a piece of a rubber hose, the thickness of the walls and other dimensions of which corresponded to the clarinet tube, made holes in it and set up a clarinet mouthpiece. You guessed how the experience ended? The sound of an impromptu clarinet was quite like the sound of the present.

If the sound of wooden winds often reminds us of a shepherd’s paste, then copper instruments are connected in our view with military signals, marching marches. And this is not by chance, since copper instruments are used in military brass bands. From there they came to the symphony orchestra.

Why does the pipe sound? “Because they blow it in it”. So will answer nine out of ten asked. I’m sure and you think so. Then try to blow in fanfar. If you do not know how to do this, you will only get hissing. As an experience, let’s take a regular bottle with a narrow neck. Blow right into the bottle, and only a hiss will be heard. Now blow obliquely, directing the stream to the edge of the neck. And when you find the correct position of the lips, a smooth sound will be heard, which can already be called musical, because it has not only a certain height, but also the timbre. Now let’s imagine a copper musical instrument. There is no, like wooden, canes, passing through which the air begins to fluctuate, making a sound. Copper as a vibrator uses the musician’s own lips. He folds them approximately as the canes are folded in the basket or heatheart, and the recess in the mouthpiece helps to do this.

Now you understand that they do not blow into the pipe so that the air from the light musician goes through it. Yes, this is sometimes impossible: the volume of our lungs is approximately four liters of air, and if they are compared with the volume of the bass helikon, it will become clear that a person will not fill it with air once. When playing wind instruments, the musician’s breathing only helps to excite the fluctuations of the air that is already in the tube.

Let’s remember copper brass instruments.

Hearing: Valtorna. Tool range.

French horn. German Waldhorn. Forest Horn. This is the literal translation of the name of this tool. The ancestor of Valtorna were hunting horns, in which they were trumpet when it was necessary to give a signal during the hunt or any solemn event, to declare the collection of troops.

In order for the sound to become louder and stronger, so that it is heard at a great distance, they began to lengthen Valtorn. But playing on such a long tube was uncomfortable. Therefore, the tube of the tool began to “twist”. First one round appeared, then two, three. Modern Valtorna. A narrow, about three meters long, tube with cone.Shaped expansion at the end, turning into a wide bell.

Unusual location of the Valtorna when playing. The bell down to the right hand of the musician, who with his palm rests against the wall of the bell, slightly covering it. This situation was introduced by the Dresden Valtornist Anton Gampel around 1750, so that it was easier to control the sound of the Valtorna with the introduction of his hand into the bell. This technique is widely used by modern Valtornists. The form of a mouthpiece is affected by the shape of the mouthpiece, the cup of which has the shape of an elongated funnel, not a hemisphere, like other copper winds.

Valtorna plays a very important role in the orchestra. Her sound is soft, noble. She can convey both a sad and solemn mood, it can sound sarcastically and mockingly. This is, first of all, an orchestral tool, but for it there is also solo literature.

Hearing: Tchaikovsky. Symphony. II part (fragment).

To feel the beauty of the sound of the valtor, listen to a singing, soulful melody that sounds at the beginning of the second part of the fifth symphony. And. Tchaikovsky.

In the Symphony “Manfred”, Tchaikovsky entrusted the four Valtorns on FFF to the performance of the main musical theme drawing a musical portrait of the hero. And in the “Waltz of Flowers” from the Ballet “Nutcracker” the Valtorn quartet sounds soft and melod. A concert for a Valtorna with an orchestra r is very popular. M. Glier.

Pipe. One of the most ancient copper brass instruments. Even in the Old Testament mentioned the use of pipes in religious rites. The annals of the siege of the Pechenegs of Kyiv in 968 indicate an important role of pipes in the hostilities of the Russian army. The pipe as a signaling tool has been used since ancient times by many peoples. She notified the danger, supported the courage of the soldiers in battle, opened solemn ceremonies, called for attention.

In ancient times, on the tower of the fortress wall of the city of Krakow in Poland, a warrior stood in a watch. He looked vigilantly into the distance: would the enemy seem. In his hands he held a copper pipe to give a signal in case of danger. And then one day he saw in the distance a whirlwind of dust. It was an enemy army. The invasor threw up the pipe, and an alarm sounded over Krakow. Arrows on the tower sprinkled with a cloud. One of them stuck into the chest of a trumpeter. Having gathered all his strength, he finished the signal. Only in the last sound the pipe fell out of his hands.

Classification

Modern copper winds are conditionally divided into three categories:

The sound of winds, first of all, depends on the menzura, t.E. The ratio of the length and diameter of the tube, its shape and cross.Sectional grooves. Tools with straight segments have a more powerful and bright sound, rounded. Melodious, models with wide menzura are characterized by velvet low sound.

To date, metal winds have gained wide popularity as part of orchestras, various groups and genres, acting as the main component. By visiting this section of our store, you can buy copper wind instruments of excellent quality and at an affordable cost.

Description of the presentation for individual slides:

Prepared by the teacher P.BUT.Copper brass instruments

Troubletrube-copper brass musical instrument of the altovo-sopranist register, the highest in sound among copper winds.As a signal instrument, a natural pipe has been used since ancient times, since the 17th century it became part of the orchestra. With the invention of the valve mechanism, the pipe received a complete chromatic sound mare and from the middle of the 19th century it became a full.Fledged instrument of classical music. Gummel. Concert for a pipe with an orchestra (fragment)

Tonal pipe range: 2.75 octaves.Pipe size: length. 46 cm, the total length of all tubes is 1,4 m.The most common type of pipe is a pipe in the system of Si-Bemol (in b), which sounds tone lower than its notes are written. The sound is extracted with a mouthpiece in the form of a cup, a narrow channel of the main tubes and a bell, expanding at the end.The tool has a bright, brilliant timbre, is used as a solo instrument, in the symphonic and wind orchestras, as well as in jazz and other genres.

Pipe. A right.Handed tool: when playing, the valves are pressed with the right hand, the left hand supports the tool.

Thrombontrombon-copper brass musical instrument of the bass-tenor register.Thrombone has been known since the 15th century. During its existence, thrombone practically did not undergo radical changes in its design. It differs from other copper wind instruments by the presence of a cululis-a special mobile U-shaped tube, with which the musician changes the volume of the air enclosed in the instrument, thus achieved the opportunity to perform the sounds of a chromatic scale. Saint-Sans-Cavatina Op. 144

Thrombone is a non.Vranisolate tool, so its notes are always recorded in accordance with the actual sound.In the orchestra, thanks to its loud, deep and low sound, threateningly moving from one note to another, thrombon is used to sound danger and doom in a musical work. Thrombone can play softly; Its warm sound is often used by jazz musicians and groups of copper instruments.Tonal thrombone range: 2.5 octaves.Thrombone size: total tube length. 2.7 m.

Cornet or Cornet-Piston is a copper brass instrument resembling a pipe, but having a wider and shorter tube and equipped not by valves, but by pistons. Leads from the mailing house. Was designed in France around 1830. It is used in the ranks of the SI-Bemol (In B) and L (In A).The soft expressive sound of the cornet can be heard in jazz. The cornet also appears in the ensembles of copper wind instruments and orchestras.Tchaikovsky. Neapolitan Taniciz Ballet “Swan Lake”

Cornet Tonal range: 2.5 octaves.Cornet size: length 60 cm.In the 19th century, cornets were often introduced into the orchestra along with the pipes. It was believed that the cornet has great virtuoso capabilities and a milder timbre than a pipe. On the other hand, the tenderness of the timbre is present only in the first octave.In the XX century, as a result of improving the design of the pipes and improving the skill of the trumpeters, the cornets disappeared from the orchestra. Nowadays, the orchestral batches of cornets are performed, as a rule, on pipes, although the original tool is sometimes used sometimes.Cornet is an ordinary participant in the wind orchestra, where he performs the upper melodic voice surrounded by two parties of Flugelgorn.

Valtornavvavtorna. Copper brass musical instrument of the tenor register.Came from a hunting signal horn, entered the orchestra in the middle of the 17th century. Until the 1830s, like other copper instruments, she did not have valves and was a natural instrument with a limited Nozzle. Currently, Valtorna is mainly used in f (in the system of FA), in the wind orchestras also in ES (in the system of the Mi-Bemol). Valtorna. Left.Sided instrument.Tchaikovsky. Valc flowers from the ballet “Nutcracker” (fragment)

Tonal range of valtor: 3.5 octaves.Valtorna size: different, total length of all tubes can reach from 2.8 to 3.6 m in length.

Description of the presentation for individual slides:

Municipal budgetary educational institution “Defininskaya secondary school” R. P. Mordovo Mordovian district of the Tambov region “Copper brass instruments” Author: Ivan Belnikov, student of grade 5.Head: Naumova Margarita Alexandrovna, music teacher.

Meadic wind instruments.Brail musical instrument group

According to the classification that separates the instruments by the source of vibrations, they belong to the outrageous (or mouthpiece) musical instruments, that is, vibrations are created by the musician’s lips. The height of the sound is regulated by the position of the lips (an outrage), the power of the blown air and pressing the valves (valves) that open and cover the additional tubes (crowns) of the tool.

The origin of the term name “copper” historically dates back to the material from which these tools were made. Nowadays, in addition to copper, brass is often used for them, less often silver or manufacturing material is covered with silver film (silver). Some of the instruments of the Middle Ages and Baroque with a similar method of sound recovery (for example, sickle) were made of wood, but covered with leaf copper. Modern copper overshadows include Modern: Valtorna, Pipe, Cornet, Flyelgorn, Prombon, Tububa. A separate group consists of saxhorn. Ancient copper instruments: Sakbut (predecessor of modern thrombone), Serpenser, etc. Copper is also some folk instruments, for example, the Central Asian carnay.

Valtorna Valtorna (him. Waldhorn (forest horn), Ital. Corno, English. French Horn, FR. Cor)-brass copper musical instrument of the bass-tenor register. Valtorna is used in the symphonic and wind orchestras, as well as as an ensemble and solo instrument. Valtorna came from a hunting signal horn, entered the orchestra in the middle of the 17th century. Until the 1830s, like other copper instruments, she did not have valves and was a natural instrument with a limited Nozzle. Currently, Valtorna is mainly used in f (in the system of FA), in the wind orchestras also in ES (in the system of the Mi-Bemol). The range of valtor by the actual sound. From H1 (Xi control) to F2 (FA of the second octave) with all intermediate sounds according to the chromatic scale. Valtorna notes are written in a violin on the quints above the actual sound and in the bass. On a quarter below the actual sound without key signs. The timbre of the instrument is somewhat rude in the lower register, soft and singing on the piano, light and bright on Forte. In the middle and upper. The total length of the pipe of the Valtorna is about 3.5 m.

The pipe is a brass musical instrument from the family of mouthpiece (outfields) instruments, an altopo-sopranist register, the highest in sound among copper winds. As a signal tool, a natural pipe has been used since ancient times, from about the 17th century it became part of the orchestra. With the invention of the valve mechanism, the pipe received a complete chromatic sound mare and from the middle of the 19th century it became a full.Fledged instrument of classical music.The tool has a bright, brilliant timbre, is used as a solo instrument, in the symphonic and wind orchestras, as well as in jazz and other genres.Nowadays, the pipe is widely used as a solo instrument, in the symphonic and wind orchestras, as well as in jazz, Funka, SKA and other genres. Among the outstanding solo trumpeters of various genres are Maurice Andre, Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespi, Timofei Dokshitsy, Miles Davis, Winton Marsalis, Sergey Okazhmakov, George Orvid, Eddie Calvert.

Pipe (copper brass musical instrument)

Cornet Cornet is an ordinary participant in the wind orchestra, where he performs a melodic voice. Currently, the cornet is used in addition to the wind orchestra as a training tool and occasionally as a soloist. Cornet came from a mail horn. Was designed in France around 1830. In the 19th century, cornets were often introduced into the orchestra along with the pipes. Despite the fact that the pipes were already chromatic tools, composers rarely trusted them with solo and virtuoso episodes. It was believed that the cornet has great virtuoso capabilities and a milder timbre than a pipe. Cornets were used in the orchestral works of Berlioz (Symphony “Harold in Italy”), Bizet (music for the drama “Arlesian”), Tchaikovsky (Italian Capricio, “Francesca da Rimini”). One of the most famous solo numbers of Cornet is the Neapolitan dance from Tchaikovsky’s ballet “Swan Lake”. In the second half of the 19th century, the cornet was very popular. In 1869, the class of Cornet was opened at the Paris Conservatory, the founder and his first professor was the famous Cornetist Virtuoosis Jean Batist Arban. The cornet was used in the early stages of the formation of jazz, but subsequently gave way to the pipe. In the twentieth century, improving the design of pipes and improving the skill of trumpeters practically nullified the problem of fluency and timbre, and the cornets disappeared from the orchestra. Nowadays, the orchestral batches of cornets are performed, as a rule, on pipes, although the original tool is sometimes used sometimes.

The role of copper wind instruments

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Certificate and discount on training to each participant

The role of copper wind instruments.

Imagine that pipes suddenly disappeared from the world of musical instruments. Gloomy will turn out a picture. A symphony orchestra will thin a third. The jazz will stall. The brass band will cease to exist. Folk music will suffer.

A group of copper wind instruments is small in composition. But it immediately attracts attention with the festive radiance of the metal from which these bizarre curved tools are made. Some of them resemble a horn, others. A giant gold snail. The art of trumpet into a horn or sink was already known in ancient times. Subsequently, people learned to make tools similar to the horn and intended for the military and hunting.

These tools are called thanks to the metal from which the thin.Rolled sheets of copper or brass, or a special alloy, by 60% of copper, 10% nickel, 30% zinc, or silver are made: silver. But in the old days, some of them were made of horns, shells or bones.

There was a time when these instruments made of noble metals, and the musicians believed that valuable metals still give the timbre of the instrument a special shade: silver makes the sound more complete, gold. Soft, platinum. Deep. But these differences, if there are, they are noticeable mainly only to the musicians themselves. Later they decided to conduct a curious experiment. They took a piece of a rubber hose, the thickness of the walls and other dimensions of which corresponded to the clarinet tube, made holes in it and set up a clarinet mouthpiece. You guessed how the experience ended? The sound of an impromptu clarinet was quite like the sound of the present.

If the sound of wooden winds often reminds us of a shepherd’s paste, then copper instruments are connected in our view with military signals, marching marches. And this is not by chance, since copper instruments are used in military brass bands. From there they came to the symphony orchestra.

Why does the pipe sound? “Because they blow it in it”. So will answer nine out of ten asked. I’m sure and you think so. Then try to blow in fanfar. If you do not know how to do this, you will only get hissing. As an experience, let’s take a regular bottle with a narrow neck. Blow right into the bottle, and only a hiss will be heard. Now blow obliquely, directing the stream to the edge of the neck. And when you find the correct position of the lips, a smooth sound will be heard, which can already be called musical, because it has not only a certain height, but also the timbre. Now let’s imagine a copper musical instrument. There is no, like wooden, canes, passing through which the air begins to fluctuate, making a sound. Copper as a vibrator uses the musician’s own lips. He folds them approximately as the canes are folded in the basket or heatheart, and the recess in the mouthpiece helps to do this.

Now you understand that they do not blow into the pipe so that the air from the light musician goes through it. Yes, this is sometimes impossible: the volume of our lungs is approximately four liters of air, and if they are compared with the volume of the bass helikon, it will become clear that a person will not fill it with air once. When playing wind instruments, the musician’s breathing only helps to excite the fluctuations of the air that is already in the tube.

Let’s remember copper brass instruments.

Hearing: Valtorna. Tool range.

French horn. German Waldhorn. Forest Horn. This is the literal translation of the name of this tool. The ancestor of Valtorna were hunting horns, in which they were trumpet when it was necessary to give a signal during the hunt or any solemn event, to declare the collection of troops.

In order for the sound to become louder and stronger, so that it is heard at a great distance, they began to lengthen Valtorn. But playing on such a long tube was uncomfortable. Therefore, the tube of the tool began to “twist”. First one round appeared, then two, three. Modern Valtorna. A narrow, about three meters long, tube with cone.Shaped expansion at the end, turning into a wide bell.

Unusual location of the Valtorna when playing. The bell down to the right hand of the musician, who with his palm rests against the wall of the bell, slightly covering it. This situation was introduced by the Dresden Valtornist Anton Gampel around 1750, so that it was easier to control the sound of the Valtorna with the introduction of his hand into the bell. This technique is widely used by modern Valtornists. The form of a mouthpiece is affected by the shape of the mouthpiece, the cup of which has the shape of an elongated funnel, not a hemisphere, like other copper winds.

Valtorna plays a very important role in the orchestra. Her sound is soft, noble. She can convey both a sad and solemn mood, it can sound sarcastically and mockingly. This is, first of all, an orchestral tool, but for it there is also solo literature.

Hearing: Tchaikovsky. Symphony. II part (fragment).

To feel the beauty of the sound of the valtor, listen to a singing, soulful melody that sounds at the beginning of the second part of the fifth symphony. And. Tchaikovsky.

In the Symphony “Manfred”, Tchaikovsky entrusted the four Valtorns on FFF to the performance of the main musical theme drawing a musical portrait of the hero. And in the “Waltz of Flowers” from the Ballet “Nutcracker” the Valtorn quartet sounds soft and melod. A concert for a Valtorna with an orchestra r is very popular. M. Glier.

Pipe. One of the most ancient copper brass instruments. Even in the Old Testament mentioned the use of pipes in religious rites. The annals of the siege of the Pechenegs of Kyiv in 968 indicate an important role of pipes in the hostilities of the Russian army. The pipe as a signaling tool has been used since ancient times by many peoples. She notified the danger, supported the courage of the soldiers in battle, opened solemn ceremonies, called for attention.

In ancient times, on the tower of the fortress wall of the city of Krakow in Poland, a warrior stood in a watch. He looked vigilantly into the distance: would the enemy seem. In his hands he held a copper pipe to give a signal in case of danger. And then one day he saw in the distance a whirlwind of dust. It was an enemy army. The invasor threw up the pipe, and an alarm sounded over Krakow. Arrows on the tower sprinkled with a cloud. One of them stuck into the chest of a trumpeter. Having gathered all his strength, he finished the signal. Only in the last sound the pipe fell out of his hands.

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